Swathi Thirunal

Carnatic composers (other than performing vidwans)
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Pratyaksham Bala
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#151 Re: Swathi Thirunal

Post by Pratyaksham Bala »

.
Shri Swathi Tirunal (1813-1846) was known as Shri Padmanabhadasa, Shri Swathi Tirunāḷ‍ Rāma Varma, and Shri Kulashekhara Perumal.

RSR
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#152 Re: Swathi Thirunal

Post by RSR »

p-151

@p.bala
Thank you. Any refeerence to confirm?
Was not Kulasekara PerumaaL , the Chera king who was ruling around 650 AD when Arab traders , brought Islam to Calicut? I have read that the King welcomed them and encouraged them to marry the local women. and hence they were known as MaappiLLais- Moplahs.
Any correlation?
=====================
Kulasekara Aazhvaar - is he not one of the respected Aazhvaars?
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kulasekhara_Alvar
----------------------
As SSP mentions that the kerala king passed away sometime in 1830, it could be a reference to swathi thirunaal
--
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Swathi_Th ... Rama_Varma
just requesting reference and clarification

==================================
Rama Kulasekara PerumaL is entirely different king. ( 1100 AD)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rama_Kulasekhara
Last edited by RSR on 10 Apr 2021, 08:49, edited 2 times in total.

nAdopAsaka
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#153 Re: Swathi Thirunal

Post by nAdopAsaka »

www.swathithirunal.in appears to have several kritis also with translation (taken mostly from TKG's book).

regarding historical name etc., just for context, it can be observed that
the mahArAja's own reference to his family is via the usage "vanCi mArtanda" or the pretty
"vanCi nrpAlaka vamSa Subhodaya"

at least two terrific kritis are known for these

former in bhogindra Sayinam - kuntalavarAli

somehow the charana carrying this name is the one that seems to be typically sung
(although there are 3 other charanas)

latter is found in the Devi navarAtri kriti - pAhi parvatanandini - Arabhi

in fact it is the very last phrase in the last (ninth ) kriti of this set, and effectively summarises the offering
of the vanCi kings to the devi at the end of the navarAtri celebration..

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#154 Re: Swathi Thirunal

Post by RSR »

p-151
@Pratyaksham Bala
Not convinced.! I am unable to get any reference to Swathi ThirunaaL Rama Varma , with the additional name as Kulasekara Perumal.

Pratyaksham Bala
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#155 Re: Swathi Thirunal

Post by Pratyaksham Bala »

@SrinathK

Shri Swathi Tirunal's name mentioned in this may be of interest to you:
https://www.bibliaimpex.com/index.php?p ... 8192457840

Trivandrum Sanskrit Series
Champu Kavya in Sanskrit -

"Syanandurapuravarnanaprabandha"
by His Holiness Swati Tirunal Sri Rama Varma Kulasekhara Perumal,
Maharaja of Travancore,
with the commentaries by Sundari of Sri Rajarajavarma Koil Tampuran

nAdopAsaka
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#156 Re: Swathi Thirunal

Post by nAdopAsaka »

It is mildly remarkable that the ninth and last devi navarAtri kriti , the Arabhi pAhi parvatanandini,
does not carry the typical mahArAja mudras/signatures...such as padmanAbha, saroja-nAbha, sarasijanAbha, pankaja, kamala, jalaja etc etc). In my opinion the usage of kanjadala is not a typical mudra.

Therefore the use of the vanCi reference in the Arabhi , noted in post # 153, appears
deliberate and also indicative of the offering as a collective one, from the dynasty.
(in which of course musically this mahArAja is undoubtedly the "king of kings")

Pratyaksham Bala
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#157 Re: Swathi Thirunal

Post by Pratyaksham Bala »

.
http://worldcat.org/identities/lccn-n80139875/
WorldCat Identities

In how many ways Swathi Tirunal is referred to in various publications!

Information provided by WorldCat, based on 2 billion items in 10000 libraries around the world :-

Svātitirunāḷ 1813-1846
Alternative Names :-

Perumal, Rama Varma Kulasekhara
Perumal Rama Varma Kulasekhara 1813-1846
Perumāḷ, Rāmavarmā Kulaśekhara
Perumāḷ, Rāmavarmā Kulaśekhara 1813-1846
Rama Varma Kulasekhara Perumal
Rama Varma Kulasekhara Perumal 1813-1846
Rama Varma Kulasekhara Perumal 1813-1846 Maharaja of Travancore
Rama Varma Kulasekhara Perumal, Maharaja of Travancore
Rama Varma Kulasekhara Perumal, Maharaja of Travancore, 1813-1846

Rāmavarmā
Rāmavarmā 1813-1846
Rāmavarmā Kulaśekhara Perumāḷ
Rāmavarmā Kulaśekhara Perumāḷ 1813-1846

Rāmavarmmā Svātitirunāḷ
Rāmavarmmā Svātitirunāḷ 1813-1846
Śrīsvātitirunāḷ
Śrīsvātitirunāḷ 1813-1846
Svāti Thirunāl
Svāti Thirunāl 1813-1846
Svāti Tirunāḷ
Svāti Tirunāḷ 1813-1846
Svāti Tirunāl 1813-1846 Travancore, Maharadscha
Svāti Tirunāl Rāma Varma 1813-1846 Travancore, Maharadscha
Svāti Tirunāl Rāma Varma Travancore, Maharadscha 1813-1846
Svāti Tirunāl Travancore, Maharadscha 1813-1846
Svātitirunāl 1813-1846 Travancore, Maharadscha
Svātitirunāḷ Rāmavarmā
Svātitirunāḷ Rāmavarmā 1813-1846
Svātitirunāḷ Rāmavarmā Mahārāja
Svātitirunāḷ Rāmavarmā Mahārāja 1813-1846
Svātitirunāḷ Rāmavarmmā
Svātitirunāḷ Rāmavarmmā 1813-1846
Svātitirunāl Travancore, Maharadscha 1813-1846
Swathi Thirunal
Swathi Thirunal 1813-1846
Swathi Tirunal 1813-1846
Swati Thirunal
Swati Thirunal 1813-1846
Swāti Tirunāḷ
Swāti Tirunāḷ 1813-1846
Swāti Tirunāḷ Rāmavarmā
Swāti Tirunāḷ Rāmavarmā 1813-1846
Swati Tirunal Ramavarma 1813-1846 Travancore, Maharadscha
Swati Tirunal Ramavarma Kulasekhara Perumal 1813-1846 Travancore, Maharadscha
Swati Tirunal Ramavarma Kulasekhara Perumal Travancore, Maharadscha 1813-1846

Swati Tirunal Ramavarma Travancore, Maharadscha 1813-1846
Tirunal, Swati

RSR
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#158 Re: Swathi Thirunal

Post by RSR »

Tried to check up.
Came across the article on Swathi ThiruNaaL by Prof.PPN in Carnatica.
No such mention of Kulasekara there.
It would be better if we can get a reference by someone who lived around 1850-1900 period.
In Vaishava lore, there is only one Kulasekara ( the Aazhvaar).
Beter to keep it that way.

nAdopAsaka
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#159 Re: Swathi Thirunal (the syAnandUra hamsadhwani)

Post by nAdopAsaka »

the syAnandUra hamsadhwani

Regarding mahArAjA’s hamsadhwani “pAhi Sripate”, there is no doubt in my mind of the influence on this kriti of both the Dikshitar and the tyAgarAja with respect to this emerging rAga at the time of the mahArAja.

Each of the three Caranas of this fine kriti has a word found in the vAtApi Ganapatim classic, these being
respectively bimba, nitila and vAra.

The song itself is closer to the tyAgarAja classic "raghunAyakA ni pAda yuga", as seen in particular from the anupallavi’s,

Another “trinity” of sorts has dealt with this kriti
MDR-Lalgudi-VelloreR
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=E9xcOS6rpZE

A nice and crisp veena+vocal version is also available
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sig-QouZj34

a fine version of raghunAyaka can be compared
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Wz26ZaoGUVA

nAdopAsaka
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#160 Re: Swathi Thirunal (the syAnandUra bilahari)

Post by nAdopAsaka »

the syAnandUra bilahari

In some ancient texts, the “high pitched neighing” horse of Indra also has the name “bila” or “bilah”.

The rAga “bilah-ari” itself shows many similar flourishes that are indicative of a plausible origin
for the name of this rAga !

The Bombay sisters do a fine job rendering the less-heard syAnandUra bilahari
kriti “santatam bhajAmiha” and displaying these flourishes.

And…(hold your horses..) their accompaniment is the equally distinguished violin-viduSi kanyAkumAri.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LMa__24TRdI

This is one of only a handful of kritis , (I count less than ten) carrying the word “ambuja-nAbha”
as the mahArAjA’s mudra/signature.

It can also be seen that the mahArAja cites the primordial horse-rider Indra via the usage
“vAsavAnujam” in the second charana.

In “santatam bhajAmiha”, the mahArAjA effectively uses misra CApu tAla to harness the natural ebullience of this beautiful rAga, as it rears and plunges like a wild-eyed steed to his imagination.

nAdopAsaka
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#161 Re: Swathi Thirunal (the syAnandUra hindolam)

Post by nAdopAsaka »

the syAnandUra hindolam

It is of some interest that there is only one known kriti of the mahArAja in rAga hindolam
(as far as I can tell his HindustAni rAga forays have also ignored the mAlkauns).

The kriti is of course the evergreen syAnandura hindolam “padmanAbha pAhi dvipa-pa sAra”

The kriti opens with the fascinating motif of the “beast that drinks in two ways” (i.e. with mouth and trunk, dvi-pa) , which is a rarely used synonym of the elephant.

Perhaps the appearance of this word right at the start in the hindolam kriti is a tongue-in-cheek reference to underscore the pa-varjya nature of the rAga itself (no panchamam )

It is noted that the kriti shares the usage of the also rarely appearing word “sadma” (or abode/place) with the
similarly starting Arabhi kriti by mahArAja "padmanAbha pAhi padmavilOcana"

We can also imbibe this hindolam in two pleasing ways..
since two older versions by elephantine stalwarts are available..

MDR
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pzLtLc4iOTQ

TNS/LGJ/KMani
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=miz_Uj4B9Ng

nAdopAsaka
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#162 Re: Swathi Thirunal (the syAnandUra nAyaki )

Post by nAdopAsaka »

the syAnandUra nAyakI

The mahArAjA’s syAnandUra nAyakI "pAlayamAm Sri pankajanAbha"
is one of his kritis with the fewest words, but this hardly limits his imagery or rAga bhAva.

For example the young sun is described uniquely as “bAla tapa”. (cf. "tapaniya" of the CarukESi)

In fact , as demonstrated by this bAla, the kriti is the epitome of short and sweet !!

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=W77jy3Nzd1M

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#163 Re: Swathi Thirunal (the syAnandUra vasanta )

Post by nAdopAsaka »

the syAnandUra vasanta

The mahArAjA’s syAnandUra vasanta " parama puruSa jagadIshvara "
is one of only 2 vasanta kritis by him.

Interestingly both kritis carry the “vasanta” rAga mudra, and both appear inspired by the Dikshitar's methods
of giving rAga mudra !

Generally the mahArAjA does not give rAga mudras in his kritis.

In "parama puruSa", the anupallavi conceals this mudra across two separate words,
as shown in bold....and is of the type favored sometimes by the Dikshitar.

anupallavi
sarasIruha bhava shankara vAsa-va sannuta carita shaurE

The other vasantA is the ajAmilOpAkhyAna kriti where the mudra is inferrable from the word for the
smile of ajAmilA’s child "hasantam".. This of course is reminiscent of the classic "rAmachandram bhAvayAmi"
where the Dikshitar sings "sAketa nagarE nivasantam...".

i.e. samAlokayAsau bAlakam hasantam !!

I haven’t been able to find a rendition for this one..and must console myself with the
famous saying … ”songs unheard are sweeter by far”

Fortunately for the syAnandUra vasanta , two quite terrific !!! modern renditions are available

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TubYLeVytkU

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oj_4JT-_pnk

thanks for their efforts..

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#164 Re: Swathi Thirunal (the syAnandUra nilAmbarI)

Post by nAdopAsaka »

the syAnandUra nilAmbarI

The great vAggeyakAras have uniformly approached nilAmbari with
the gentle contemplation that illuminates the majesty of this rAga and which it deserves.

( e.g. post # 405 of the Dikshitar thread in this forum discusses how extensively this
reflective element is explored by the Dikshitar in ambA nIlAyatAkSi)

In this regard, the mahArAjA’s syAnandUra nilAmbarI " satatam sam smarAnIha” is also classified as
one of his so-called Navavidha Bhakti set , i.e. the nine ways of worship, this being the “smaranam” bhakti vidha.

Gentle contemplation being often, if not always, synonymous with sweet memory ,
the choice of NilAmbarI for this "smaranam" or remembrance method is fitting.

Here SSI’s top female SiSya gives a crisp and chaste rendition that does full justice to
this auspicious kriti.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mRLLUgqxhgM

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#165 Re: Swathi Thirunal (the syAnandUra mohanakalyAni )

Post by nAdopAsaka »

the syAnandUra mohanakalyAni

The mahArAjA’s syAnandUra mohanakalyAni " seve srikAntam” is rather interesting.

It cites vrindAvana in charanam 1, the gangA in charanam 2 before finally ending up with syAnandUra (i.e. padmanabha-pura) in charanam 3.

This geographical mix of the lyric mirrors the rAga itself which combines aspects of
Bhoop (a Hindustani Mohana variant) and kalyAni.

Fittingly too, the mahArAja ends the kriti with a reference to nectar/sudhA.

nice renditions are available
(diabetes alert !! for both)

fine Veena
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iS9oLoYF4Oc

excellent vocal
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=w0q2Nq6nGS0

ajaysimha
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#166 Re: Swathi Thirunal

Post by ajaysimha »

Hello Rasikas,

Is there any articles on Maharaja Swathi Thirunal's Nava Vidha Bhakthi Krithis?

https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCs7WHg ... JLYRIoDVeA

Maharaja Shri SwathiThirunal's Nava Vida Bhakti Keerthanams
Svara Amaipu : Dr. PujaShri. Semmangudi Srinivasa Iyer
Vocal : Prof. G. Seethalakshmi Ammal (Retd)
SST College of Music, Thiruvananthapuram

Thanks,
Ajay Simha

RSR
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#167 Re: Swathi Thirunal

Post by RSR »

p-166

@ajaysimha

Thank you for the topic.
Just now came across a nice paper on the exact topic.
the introduction . Seems to be very nice.
Will read it tonight in full


I would suggest that we begin with chapter-8

http://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in:8080/ ... er%204.pdf



-------------------
CONCEPT OF NAVAVIDHA BHAKTI AND ITS SIGNIFICANCES IN THE COMPOSITIONS OF SAINT THYAGARAJA AND HIS HIGHNESS SWATI THIRUNAL
THESIS SUBMITTED TO THE UNIVERSITY OF KERALA FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY
BY BIJULAL. C.H.
SUPERVISOR
--------------------.
Prof.V.Raghavan's thesis on the same topic from compositions of Saint Thyagaraja also is a 'must' read. ( Spiritual heritage of Thygaraja)


http://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in:8080/ ... ?mode=full

nAdopAsaka
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#168 Re: Swathi Thirunal

Post by nAdopAsaka »

I had mentioned the mahArAja’s nava vidha bhakti in post # 113 Oct 2020 of this thread.

RSR is correct to point out the exceptional reference to the V. rAghavan and c. rAmanujaCAri compendium of tyAgarAja. They have together expressed the torrential output of the tyAgarAja in that text, in a way that highlights the driving force behind the great vAggeyakAra. This book should be required reading for anyone with even slight interest in any of this music.

It is quite likely the tyAgarAjA’s kritis in the nava-vidha bhakti theme have inspired the mahArAjA, although the idea goes back to much older times.

However, the tyAgarAja does not confine himself to any one specific kriti for each mode. (see pages 149-160 of the Spiritual Heritage tome”). As is the case with the tyAgarAja, the flood is so great and so uncontrollable and so we have multiple kritis expressing each of these themes.

Traditionally however the mahArAjA’s efforts are associated with single, specific kritis for each bhakti vidha.

Indeed he immediately gives the “bhAva mudra” within the first line of each kriti as I show below (bhAva being the overriding theme of the bhakti vidha)
1. bhavadIya kathA bhi nava sudhAyAm parimajjadumE shruti yugaLI -hearing-bhairavi

2. tAvaka nAmAni shubhadAni prajapAni - chanting- kEdaragaula

3. satatam sam smaranIha – remembering -nilAmbari (note “smarati nu mAm” also in madhyamAvati )

4. pankajAkSa tava sEvAm bahudAkara vAni - sevA-toDi

5. ArAdhyAmi karanA traya – archana -offering worship-bilahari

6. Vande deva deva – vandanam offering prayers-bEgada

7. parama puruSa nanu karma samastam bhavati samarpayAmi = dAsyam-ahiri

8. bhavati vishvAsO mE bhavatu sadA - this is actually more like “confidence” and not exactly “sakhyam” =friendship -mukhAri

(compare to tyAgarAjA’ usage of sakhyam as in “tAmarasa dala netrI tyAgarajuni mitri”, which is also the famous neraval point in the timeless “Amma rAvamma” Kalyani)

9. dEva dEva kalpayAmi sO ahamIsha mAmakam dEha gEhAdikam ca sakalam api tAvakam hi - total surrender (deha and geha etc)- nAdanAmakriya

It could be interesting to see if there is a better or equally valid “sakhyam” idea kriti of the mahArAja other than the mukhAri.

Hyd bros do a fine tOdi of the above set

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gJd1lhRkKyQ

as does MDR of course

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YbBjHdXt6-I

nAdopAsaka
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#169 Re: Swathi Thirunal (syAnandUra kriti or nava-vidha bhakti kriti or both ?!)

Post by nAdopAsaka »

syAnandUra kriti or nava-vidha bhakti kriti or both ?!

A curiosity of sorts can arise with regard to a couple of the Nava-vidha bhakti kritis..

1. if "satatam sam smarAnIha"-nilAmbari is disqualified as a valid smarana-remembrance bhakti vidha kriti because it already belongs to the syAnandUra set (see post # 164 of this thread)
at least 2 other mahArAja kritis can be considered for such remembrance motif...

these are

the well-known "smara-sadA mAnasA" - bilahari

exposed here by a leading young vidwAn
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QLpyIVAWjgI

and the much less heard "smara hari pAdAravindam" in sAmA
shown here by a leading vidUSi

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=q5Y8-MnZlqw

Most textbooks seem to ignore these two kritis entirely when discussing the nava-vidha bhakti but forget to point out the syAnandUra aspect of the currently chosen kriti.......this choice also enforces the somewhat narrow view that only specific individual kritis were designed for each bhakti vidha (unlike the tyAgarAja).

2. Along these lines as I noted in the previous post the interpretation of "sakhyam" as the much broader "confidence/trust" as claimed to have been portrayed by mahArAjA in the bhavati viSwAsO mukhAri is a little awkward, as I see it

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#170 Re: Swathi Thirunal

Post by nAdopAsaka »

I am unable to find the syAnandUra Kalyani kriti "seve syAnandUreSvara" in a suitable audio

In its place for now , the kriti "sAturA kAmini" is quite suitable..

It actually sounds very nice in yamunA kalyAni

in my opinion much better than the conventional kalyAni which some textbooks indicate

the link incorrectly shows kalyAni but the rendering is clearly in yamunA kalyAni/yaman..
https://www.swathithirunal.in/htmlfile/320.htm

the yamunA kalyAni rAga choice seems to me also supported by the following

1. the meaning of the lyrics, which portray a Cupid stricken nAyikA

2. multiple pointers to the word "yaman" via kamani, kAmini and kamaniya.

nAdopAsaka
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#171 Re: Swathi Thirunal (the syAnandUra udayaravichandrikA aka shuddha dhanyASi )

Post by nAdopAsaka »

the syAnandUra udayaravichandrikA aka shuddha dhanyASi !

It is noticeable that mahArAjA’s “sAmOdam CintayAmi” begins with the similar word as where the Dikshitar’s Sri pArthasArathinA ends !

sAmOdam CintayAmi versus “guruguha sammOditEna” !!

Although both kritis are sung in what is known as “shuddha dhanyASi”, the “Oda” sound in both words suggests both vAggeyakAras could be aware of brewing confusion, culprit likely the tyAgarAja’s kriti "enta nErchina" dominating the name-game with so-called “Oda-ya raviCandrika" misnomer !

Fine examples of sAmOdam CintayAmi are available

vidwAn KBMK
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-T6C5SBK72E

vidUSi Amruta Venkatesh
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eUoACJpY0ao

For comparison it is useful to look also at the Dikshitar's short and sweet "Sri pArthasArathinA" , to the Triplicane temple deity kriti exposed here nicely by the following

Mandolin SrinivAs
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dMO00N7mjwI
NedunuriK
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ALM-x-2EP_M

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