Mutthuswamy Dikshithar (Krithis)

Carnatic composers (other than performing vidwans)
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nAdopAsaka
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#501 Re: Mutthuswamy Dikshithar (angArakAdi Navagraha vanditasya)

Post by nAdopAsaka »

angArakAdi Navagraha vanditasya

In the footsteps of nAdaJyoti Muthuswamy Dikshitar..

It can be seen quite clearly that the Dikshitar has exercised his imagination in ALL the rAgas of the
Navagrahas by having at least one other kriti in them (in many of them he has multiple kritis).

The purpose of this post is to note one of the other “ramA-manohari” kritis, which is of course the important kriti to the Subramanya of Sikkal, the Sikkal-singAravela, arguably a deity as close to the Dikshitar as the Devi.

In this kriti the Dikshitar uses the descriptor “angArakAdi Navagraha vanditasya”, which acknowledges
(as if it needs to be reiterated ?!) his understanding of the Navagrahas as a composite entity.

I believe with this (and my last few posts) that there is sufficient evidence to counter and dismantle a
false narrative that seems to have propagated for several decades that the eclipse graha kritis,
(or chAya grahas , central to Hindu planetary view, epics etc. and horoscopy), are not also the Dikshitars.

It is time to eclipse this nonsense forever.

I believe these kritis are entirely the Dikshitars , in words, song and context.

An excellent version of SrngAra shaktyAyudha is available (kriti begins at 9.00 minute mark)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ytn6pHrKPlM

of course “mAtangi Sri rAjarAjeSwari” is a fine classic in ramA-manohari that also bears re-listening

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NlFoKPwD8ws

mAtangi Sri rAjarAjeSwari’s uniqueness lies in the fact that it is the only kriti of the Dikshitar which uses the
melodious name “raNat kiHNkiNi mEkhalA bhAsvari” , with the equally
melodious meaning i.e. Devi with the girdle of tinkling bells !!

Ananthakrishna
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#502 Re: Mutthuswamy Dikshithar (Krithis)

Post by Ananthakrishna »

Harika Ravinuthala wrote: 18 Mar 2021, 21:17 Hi all
I am new to rasika.
I am learning Carnatic music since 9 years, and i would love to learn a new and unique MSD Keerthana. Could you please suggest a new keerthana?
Every authentic Mudduswami Dikshitar krithi is unique and is a masterpiece in it's own way.

I suppose for a rare krithi the one in Gopikavasantam, Balakrishnam Bhavayami is a really nice piece.

Link to a rendition by Vid. Ramakrishna Murthy is given below:
https://youtu.be/QW3DOwt6HWs

Another fine krithi that I find really unique of MD's would be Renukadevi Samrakshitoham in Kannadabangala. The Grahaswaram concept is shown very clearly.

Link to a rendition by Vid. T M Krishna is given below:
https://youtu.be/DsXux2IV9lI

RSR
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#503 Re: Mutthuswamy Dikshithar (Krithis)

Post by RSR »

It is useful to go through ALL the previous posts in ALL the sections before commenting. Especially , in this thread.
----
Many controversial points have already been answered by great scholars.
Authenticity of MD kruthis, kruthis not mentioned in SSP , 'nI sathi deivamu', 'roopamu joochi' etc.
Telugu kruthis by MD? N.
Page-2
posts- 78, 84, 92, 95, 97
and many more valuable posts on authenticity, historicity, renderings, links.

Ananthakrishna
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#504 Re: Mutthuswamy Dikshithar (Krithis)

Post by Ananthakrishna »

I suppose raising this point again is futile, for those arguing against it will never agree. But let's be very clear about some things-

1) Rupamu joochi is MD's composition
2) Nee Saati Deivamu is MD's even though the ankita mudra is absent. This is not unique to this krithi. In the authentic MD Nottuswaram Pankaja Mukha also, "Guruguha" is absent.


To my knowledge, the only "error" in the SSP has been the attribution of Rama Rama Kalikalusha to Subbarama Dikshitar instead of MD. Apart from that the SSP is highly accurate and it is unquestionable. And so, if Rupamu Joochi and Nee Saati Deivamu are attributed to MD in the SSP, they are indeed MD's compositions, and no further arguments need be made.

Ananthakrishna
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#505 Re: Mutthuswamy Dikshithar (Krithis)

Post by Ananthakrishna »

Oh and also, I have observed that in many MD krithis, his Charanams especially are very ragam oriented. He seems to, in a very rambling fashion, seek to explore as much of the ragam as possible in his tuning. This is in contrast with Tyagaraja's tuning, which typically emphasises on a few select contours of a particular ragam, leaving the rest of the ragam soundscape for elaboration in a different composition.

I sometimes find that (from a tuning perspective only), MD's style is very (I hate to use this term, but can't think of any better one) padam-esque. Would welcome all your learned opinions on MD's style of tuning his krithis.

Would especially like @The Lost Melodies, @SrinathK and @shreyas to chip in! I know that you are very passionate researchers and admirers of the Dikshitar school.

SrinathK
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#506 Re: Mutthuswamy Dikshithar (Krithis)

Post by SrinathK »

Even Rama Rama, looking at its evenly spaced melodic flow, and the chittaswaram style (every Dikshitar has a different approach to chittaswaram) is far more like Subbarama Dikshitar than Muthuswami Dikshitar (guruguha mudra not withstanding).

But the fact that glaring discrepancy between the index and the kriti page itself was never rectified even down the road is surprising. That would have made my life a lot easier.

The Lost Melodies
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#507 Re: Mutthuswamy Dikshithar (Krithis)

Post by The Lost Melodies »

MD's style is very (I hate to use this term, but can't think of any better one) padam-esque.
Can you define or explain the word 'padam-esque'.

From what I have understood, Muthusvamy Diksitar stands alone in the style of composing. Though his works were influenced by Ramasvamy Diksitar, tuning a kriti more like a gitam is seen only with him.

Ananthakrishna
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#508 Re: Mutthuswamy Dikshithar (Krithis)

Post by Ananthakrishna »

By padam-esque I mean that the composition, especially the charanam (in compositions that don't follow the P-AP format) is tuned in a very ragam-explorative manner. The gait being sedate, the range of tuning stretching across the middle octave and even venturing into the lower and higher ones, the placing of the syllables in a manner that emphasises on the phrases between them, these are all quite characteristic of most padams also. The same way typical padams seem to, in a rambling fashion display most, if not all, contours of a ragam, MD's tuning seems to do the same thing.

For instance, my personal observations-

1. Sri Venugopala- I personally was reminded heavily of Aliveni endu while listening to it
2. Pahimam Ratnachala Nayaka- I felt strongly that there were striking similarities in melodic outline with Kashiki Poyyene and Akkaraleni Kapuramaye, far more similar than say, Elavatara or Muripemu Galige.
3. Kasi Vishweshwara- On hearing Vid. G Ravikiran's rendition, I found many ideas (about how to display Kambhoji) in common with Bala Vinave.
4. Sri Kalahastisha- On hearing it, I personally felt the style of interpretation of the ragam was very similar to the way it is interpreted in Aligite Bhagyamaye
5. Abhayambikayaaha Anyam- Again the style of interpretation reminded me heavily of Emandunamma.

These are personal as well as highly objective observations of course, but I feel that the way Dikshitar interpreted and showed the ragam in his compositions bears similarities to how many padams are structured melodically.

I am not saying that MD was melodically influenced by padams. Just that to me there seem to be a few stylistic similarites.
The Lost Melodies wrote: 12 Apr 2021, 17:58
From what I have understood, Muthusvamy Diksitar stands alone in the style of composing. Though his works were influenced by Ramasvamy Diksitar, tuning a kriti more like a gitam is seen only with him.
Also that was another aspect of his tuning that I wanted to learn more about! To me, this is especially seen in the krithis he has set in the Pallavi-Anupallavi format (over here in K'taka, many musicians say Samashti Charanam). Could you please elaborate?

The Lost Melodies
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#509 Re: Mutthuswamy Dikshithar (Krithis)

Post by The Lost Melodies »

Also that was another aspect of his tuning that I wanted to learn more about! To me, this is especially seen in the krithis he has set in the Pallavi-Anupallavi format (over here in K'taka, many musicians say Samashti Charanam). Could you please elaborate?
This is not related to the structure of a kriti, Majority of his kritis, except his many/all of the adi tala kritis, this feature is seen. We really do not know the reason for him to follow this structure.

By padam-esque I mean that the composition, especially the charanam (in compositions that don't follow the P-AP format) is tuned in a very ragam-explorative manner. The gait being sedate, the range of tuning stretching across the middle octave and even venturing into the lower and higher ones, the placing of the syllables in a manner that emphasises on the phrases between them,
I guessed you are mentioning this feature, but wants to get confirmed.

We cannot equate with any of the presently available padam-s, until we get their original/oldest possible tunes. These padam-s are sung more like a kirtana in parts of Andhra Pradesh even now.

nAdopAsaka
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#510 Re: Mutthuswamy Dikshithar (bahutara “bheda” chodyam)

Post by nAdopAsaka »

bahutara “bheda” chodyam

In the footsteps of nAdaJyoti Muthuswamy Dikshitar..

The Dikshitars Nava-Graha-bheda (the secrets) have been explained, once and for all, in post # 500 and related posts above.

However the Dikshitar vis-a-vis Graha-bheda (the murchanas) merits some comment.

In my opinion, while the concept of Graha-bheda is technically important , i.e. in describing the transit from one rAga to another , upon change of AdhAra shadja etc. , it has not ascended into Dikshitars upAsana.

We have seen already that rAga choice and rAga mudra whether direct or inferrable, are not at all random in the Dikshitars kritis.

As has only been forged in the crucible of the Dikshitars vision, we see word, sound and idea come together, tightly compressed, in an inseparable alloy.

Even submerged deep in upAsana, the Dikshitar sends clues to his motivations, providing of course that we are able to ask the right questions.

For example when this greatest of Hindu tone-poets (or kavi) uses “madhura kavitA’, we are bound to ask what he could be referring to ?! …indeed as far as I can tell it is the only usage of the word kavitA in the entire collection and perhaps the first time the question has been asked..

Once such an enquiry begins, we immediately see that “madhura kavitA”, is nothing but the Dikshitar simultaneously invoking the eternal bhagavad-giTa, the auspicious albeit illegitimate Budha graha , and its related mahA-bhArata nAtaka using the rAga nAtaka-ranji to create the alloy. The rest is history.

Conversely, what the Dikshitar does not do is also highly indicative, which brings me to the subject of the Dikshitar and Graha-bheda.

There are only very few kritis of the Dikshitar where simultaneously two rAga mudras (either direct or indirect) can be seen to be given by him.

In a couple of these rare instances , the rAgas cited are also “graha-bheda” partners. i.e. can be mutated into each other by changing the tonic note.

So far I have only seen “vEdAraNyEshvarAya namaste” in todi give inferred mudras for both rAgas todi and Sankarabharanam via “tatva bOdhitAya” and “prapaHncakAyashaHNkarAya”

Also "pasupatiSwara pranaumi" makes reference to cala-nAta via “pra-Nata” as well as refer to “Siva-pantuvarAli”.
I have commented on this kriti in post # 458.

It could be mildly interesting to see (in the textbooks) whether these (word) appearances in these kritis coincide with the swara (e.g) corresponding to the graha-bheda.

However , it is already abundantly clear that the Dikshitar has ignored the dozens of known rAga pairs, triplets, even quintuplets that form graha-bheda partnerships (e.g. kuntalam-manoranjani, or ratnAmbari-gamakakriya-jhankArabhramari etc. etc) , in terms of simultaneously naming them or even prescribing the possibility to swing from graha-bheda partner rAga to another graha-bheda partner.

Is the appearance of graha-bheda groups in the vibhakti sets, especially the triplet (todi-SankarAbharanam-kalyAni) in the kamalAmba series indicative of or driven by the need or desire to demonstrate graha-bheda ?

I am doubtful, although there is a possibility it may have influenced rAga choice. This issue will be examined in due course.

In my opinion, the focus of each kriti and unique “rAga-scape” is an offering to each individual deity (even though deities sometimes come as groups seated symbolically either to the left or right or in the lap) such as for each chakra for every one of the nine kamalAmba devi yoginis.

While it is possible that deities themselves “shape-shift” (say as avatars might), there appears to be little room or need for such flexibility in the Dikshitars upAsana …the concentration on a deity is as unwavering as the concentration on a rAga.

The fruits of this upAsana are seen naturally in the quality of the Dikshitar kritis.

In a Sabari-esque gesture , I believe these fruits should be offered to one and all...

.accordingly here is the rare vedAranya todi by a senior viduSi
(thanks as always to artistes and enabling parties)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=W7_gqItjaeQ

The Lost Melodies
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#511 Re: Mutthuswamy Dikshithar (Krithis)

Post by The Lost Melodies »

Kasi Vishweshwara- On hearing Vid. G Ravikiran's rendition, I found many ideas (about how to display Kambhoji) in common with Bala Vinave.
I was about to address this issue too in my last post. Unfortunately, I was not in a position to give an elaborative reply. Hence, thought of opening it up again.

Especially in the field of arts, there is something called 'normalization' or standardization'. That is, as we move away from the period of a creator (here a composer), the original thoughts of him will be interpreted in multiple ways in the immediate period and only one of the interpretations survive the test of time. This is more akin to the 'survival of the fittest theory. If you take a publication of Saundarya Lahari or Vishnu Sahasranamam written in the early part of 18th century (for example), the number of slokas or the order in these slokas occur might not correspond with what we see now. This example is much applicable to the ragas and the way in which a kriti is being rendered. So, there was a period in which we could find a lot of heterogeneity and after a particular breakthrough period, this heterogeneity completely disappears and homogeneity prevails.
I can cite several kritis of Tyagaraja Svamigal as examples. This same concept can be applied to the pada-s of Kshetrayya too. For many of his pada-s, I have seen 3 or 4 versions in the manuscripts; but you can never get a recording for all of them unless we take pain to sing them. The padam 'bala vinave' too could be placed in that category. Here, the version is not to be considered alone; the way the raga Kambhoji was handled is also to be considered.
This homogeneity also plays a role when a kriti is being reconstructed from the texts. Usually, the kriti will be rendered only in a fashion that is applicable to that period. No one attempts to interpret in its archaic form! This is how an art form evolves.
So, when we compare two compositions composed in the same raga, this theory of homogeneity is to be kept in mind and inferences are to be drawn.
You will get an entirely different picture if you understand the baroque music and tries to interpret these songs in their lost form. This is the very same reason for starting The Lost Melodies. You can understand it better if this interpretation of the kriti 'kashi visvesvara' is heard.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Efxly-u2OZM


Let me know your comments.

Ananthakrishna
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#512 Re: Mutthuswamy Dikshithar (Krithis)

Post by Ananthakrishna »

What you say does make sense. I guess I was biased by the modern popular interpretation of Kambhoji, which was superimposed on both the Padam and the Krithi.

I'll listen to the rendition you have shared and get back to you.

nAdopAsaka
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#513 Re: Mutthuswamy Dikshithar (kari-kalabha-mukham-the elephant calf and the abhayAmba Devi)

Post by nAdopAsaka »

kari-kalabha-mukham-the elephant calf and the abhayAmba Devi

In the footsteps of nAdaJyoti Muthuswamy Dikshitar..

Among the 27-odd Ganapati kritis of the Dikshitar (see for e.g. post # 421 for a modern interpretation of this set) there is only one which describes the Ganapati as the young or calf-elephant headed, aka the so-called “searched for and then found” ganeSa.

This “kari-kalabha mukha” ganeSa of the sAverI, can be thought of as guarding the entrance of the Dikshitars Great Pyramid to the abhayAmbA Devi.

"kalabha" itself may be phonetically related to the root word for “calf”.

The Dikshitar uses kari-vadanena in other kritis but this kalabha or calf motif is unique.

Separately it is known that the Dikshitar invokes other forms of the Ganapati, symbolically as sentinels , for several of his major shrines (e.g. ekadantam-hAlAsya/madurai, shwetaganapati-Tanjavur, or the so-called ShodaSa for Tiruvarur etc).

It does not seem a coincidence that mAyavaram is one of the few sites to have a shrine to the Adi-Ganapati i.e. the human-headed Ganapati.. just before his unfortunate decapitation and transplant.

That the Dikshitar acknowledges the connection of this unique Ganapati to this particular Devi is also seen in the usage “girijA-tanujam” in the sAverI corresponding to the vibhakti set Sankarabharanam kriti usage “girijayA-ajayA”.

Although the abhayAmbA vibhakti set of 8 kritis is cut from the same cloth as the kamalAmbA set ( unquestionably another of the Dikshitars Great Pyramids to the Devi !!) , namely the graha-bheda-linked quintuplet of kalyAni, Natabhairavi, SankarAbharanam, HariKAmboji and Todi or their janyA rAgas, the focus on the abhaya motif is unique and singular.

In fact the word “abhaya” is not found anywhere in the kamalAmba navAvarana set, which reiterates the unwavering focus and concentration of the Dikshitar, also mentioned in post # 510 above.

As an aside it is noted that the so-called mangala kritis in Shri for each set can be separately linked to the sixth graha-bheda result of the above set, the 22nd mela.

Furthermore although the abhayAmbA Devi is traditionally linked to the mAyavaram site via the famous mayuram or peacock/peahen legend , there are many other treasures embedded in the musical sculptures within this Great Pyramid.

In fact the Dikshitar has used the abhayAmbA platform to bring forth several unique concepts of the Devi such as sAyujya , samayACarana, kundali-tantra , manipuraka , Caryadi-the fourfold sAdhana etc etc.

To me the fearlessness = abhaya granted by this unique Devi is also inextricably linked to her construct of her own guardian Ganapati, the girijA-tan-uja, enshrined forever by the Dikshitar as the newly minted kari-kalabha-mukha.

At least two excellent renditions are available (thanks to those who make these possible )

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m3yF69eQDLU
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2OW1-UrGd5E

rajeshnat
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#514 Re: Mutthuswamy Dikshithar (kari-kalabha-mukham-the elephant calf and the abhayAmba Devi)

Post by rajeshnat »

nAdopAsaka wrote: 30 Apr 2021, 00:29 kari-kalabha-mukham-the elephant calf and the abhayAmba Devi

Among the 27-odd Ganapati kritis of the Dikshitar (see for e.g. post # 421 for a modern interpretation of this set) there is only one which describes the Ganapati as the young or calf-elephant headed, aka the so-called “searched for and then found” ganeSa.

This “kari-kalabha mukha” ganeSa of the sAverI, can be thought of as guarding the entrance of the Dikshitars Great Pyramid to the abhayAmbA Devi.

It does not seem a coincidence that mAyavaram is one of the few sites to have a shrine to the Adi-Ganapati i.e. the human-headed Ganapati.. just before his unfortunate decapitation and transplant.
Is kari kalabha mukha ganesha idol just in front of Goddess abhayamba in the same main mayuranatha swami temple or as mayavaram natives say Periya Kovil OR is that ourside the main temple in a nearby temple somewhere in mayavaram taluk?

nAdopAsaka
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#515 Re: Mutthuswamy Dikshithar (Krithis)

Post by nAdopAsaka »

In the footsteps of nAdaJyoti Muthuswamy Dikshitar..

In the tantras, and also seen in many of the Dikshitars kritis, including this sAverI, the Ganapati resides in the 4-petalled chatur-dala flower of the mulAdhAra chakra, (at spinal base typically)

This chakra location is quite different from, say, the sahasra-dala or 1000-petalled flower, at least one of the locations of the abhayAmbA devi noted in the kedAram kriti , which is associated with the crown or head.

(which is a good excuse to listen to the excellent kedAram again.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2norDXXiWj4 )

The “GPS” coordinates of all these chakras/locations are, of course, all in only one place, the imagination of the Dikshitar mind..

As for actual geographical locations around the abhayAmbA-mayuranAtha complex in mAyavaram, it seems to me this particular Ganapati could be close to the abhayAmbA Devi's shrine

It is noticeable that the ending words of the sAverI kriti describe this Ganapati as supremely courageous "dhiram-apAram" which is part of this "abhaya" construct.

nAdopAsaka
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#516 Re: Mutthuswamy Dikshithar (the begada mA in “Sri mA-tah Siva”)

Post by nAdopAsaka »

the begada mA in “Sri mA-tah Siva”

In the footsteps of nAdaJyoti Muthuswamy Dikshitar..

The elongated begada mA (so-called madhyama) is of course one of the unique prayogas/features of this beautiful rAga.

This fact is not lost on the Dikshitar, who launches the JambukeSwaram Devi kriti “Sri mA-tah Siva” with precisely this prayoga.

This auspicious kriti itself commemorates the initial names from the LalitA sahasranAma at start of both Pallavi and Anupallavi.

There are other curiosities of this kriti compared to the rest of the Dikshitar collection such as the rather rare reference to the specific word “Sri Cakra”, via the shape of the earrings of the “akhilAnda-nAyaki” and the equally rare description of Devi wielding arrows made of flowers.

At least three other important begada’s can be related to this one or share some aspects.

nAdopAsana of Sri tyAgarAja, abhimAnamennadu of Patnam SI and Vande Deva Deva of the mahArAja.

What better way to listen to this magnificent kriti than the veena in the hands of a great master.

The elongation of the mA in the charanam by this viduSi is reminiscent also of rAmnAd K handling the Patnam masterpiece.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1gsxnJ6f-Xc

A second veena rendition by this master is also available , the acoustics are a bit off but serve to give
the veena sound a mellow gottuvAdyam feel, which actually suits this kriti quite well.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rxpO5VcFIKA

Lakshman
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#517 Re: Mutthuswamy Dikshithar (Krithis)

Post by Lakshman »

I came across the notations for two rare krtis of Dikshitar in one of the journals of the Music Academy.
The songs are: shvEtAraNyEshvaram in Arabhi and brahmavidyAmbikE in kalyANi.
These songs are not found in Krtimanimalai, Vinai Sundaram Iyer;s Dikshita Kirtanamala or in TKG's book.

nAdopAsaka
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#518 Re: Mutthuswamy Dikshithar (SvetAranyam Krithis)

Post by nAdopAsaka »

SvetAranyam Krithis

In the footsteps of nAdajyoti Muthuswamy Dikshitar..

Both kritis are to the associated SivA and Devi deities at SvetAranyam aka Tiruvenkadu, on the coast,
as also seen from their first phrases.

It is of some interest that this Tiruvenkadu Arabhi cites the BhikSAtana aspect of the SivA, same as in the mAra koti lAvanya Arabhi, which however is to the deity at TiruchirApalli, and which is quite a bit inland.

I could lay my hands on two good examples of these (I do find in TKG book and PPN compendium)

excellent veena
Arabhi
“SvEtAraNyESvaram bhajEham sadA brahma-vidyA nAyakI samEtam”
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wHWEjZqRDtU

vocal-kalyAni
brahma-vidyAmbikE shrI SvEtAranyESanAyikE
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dPIvVMX4MO8

Lakshman
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#519 Re: Mutthuswamy Dikshithar (Krithis)

Post by Lakshman »

Sorry, it is in TKG's book. I somehow missed it.

The Lost Melodies
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#520 Re: Mutthuswamy Dikshithar (Krithis)

Post by The Lost Melodies »

They are also available in Sundaram Iyer's book, volume 15.

Lakshman
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#521 Re: Mutthuswamy Dikshithar (Krithis)

Post by Lakshman »

Thanks.

nAdopAsaka
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#522 Re: Mutthuswamy Dikshithar (the Dikshitar’s “rAma”-Dharma-vati)

Post by nAdopAsaka »

the Dikshitar’s “rAma”-Dharma-vati

In the footsteps of nAdajyoti Muthuswamy Dikshitar..

The quintessentially Hindu tale of the offering of half-eaten fruit by a decrepit old woman and its acceptance by the Lord captures many important features of Hindu Dharma.

In one incredibly sweet stroke, without the need for middle-men or mantras, a particular individual however shy, alone, desperate or disabled is shown to be capable of receiving divine gratitude and moksha.

Being hugely sensitive themselves, the great vAggeyakAras are not immune from the incandescence of this moment of truth… it can even be said that they have made similar Sabari-like offerings with their every breath.

Indeed the tyAgarAja was so moved by the Sabari legend that he devoted an entire kriti to her..elevating her to deity like status in so doing...this is of course the famous “enta ninne varnintunu” in MukhAri, a kriti whose rendering itself has become the foundation for the so-called bAnis of stalwart vidwAns.

It can be noticed that in his usage in this kriti of the word “sa-Mukham-buna”, the tyAgarAja gives not only an indication of rAga mudra....he also preempts the usage of the word “FaceTime” by about 200 years.,,but I digress somewhat.

The Dikshitar has also responded with care, thought and feeling to the Sabari legend and Hindu Dharma.

For within the rAmaCandra vibhakti set, he specifically picks the sixth vibhakti associated with the unique “dAsoham/bhaktoham” motif (e.g. in parallel with the other sixth vibhakti sets ambikAyAh/KamalAmbikAyAstava Bhaktoham/Sri Guruguhasya DAsoham etc. etc) to honor this special attribute of the great devotee Sabari.

Immediately it is also seen that his choice of rAga as Dharma-vati ! could not have been more appropriate.
Many attributes of rAma-Dharma are also embedded in the short yet powerful samaSti Carana.

The song is indifferent to the age of the singer, caring only for their sincerity, much like the Sabari legend itself..

Accordingly both senior and youthful renderings are good to hear..

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NLMBHzxhXAM

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9DOCwxgwy-I

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fdS67hzAsDI

thanks to the singers and the agencies that enable them including of course this forums managers..

prabhu53
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#523 Re: Mutthuswamy Dikshithar (Krithis)

Post by prabhu53 »

Good Morning. Here is a Tamil Translation of by Dikshithar Krithi on Singara Velan in Ragam Rama Manohari. Pl visit
https://prabhusponder.com/2021/05/25/ca ... -manohari/

RSR
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#524 Re: Mutthuswamy Dikshithar (Krithis)

Post by RSR »

about p-522
@nAdopAsaka

<quote>
The quintessentially Hindu tale of the offering of half-eaten fruit by a decrepit old woman and its acceptance by the Lord captures many important features of Hindu Dharma.

In one incredibly sweet stroke, without the need for middle-men or mantras, a particular individual however shy, alone, desperate or disabled is shown to be capable of receiving divine gratitude and moksha.


Indeed tyAgarAja was so moved by the Sabari legend that he devoted an entire kriti to her..elevating her to deity like status in so doing...this is of course the famous “enta ninne varnintunu” in MukhAri, a kriti whose rendering itself has become the foundation for the so-called bAnis of stalwart vidwAns.
</quote>
===========
Great writing Sir! Thank you.
----
I think you meant 'divine Grace' and not 'divine Gratitude'.
-----
The offerings of the Trinity...though they are as good in their devotion, to that of Sabari,-it may not be appropriate to equate them in our perception, though well meant.
----
May I request you to give the opening lines of the MD kruthis cited by you, so that one can refer to the full meaning from Sri.V.Govindan's blog.?

Nice of you to give audio clips, . Kindly mention the names of the artiste also.
===
Though I read all your posts, am having difficulty in tracing the cited kruthis. Only some erudite person with a holistic view of the entire set can correctly choose the relevant kruthi and am sure that you are presenting them from your vast memory and not from any book.-
Amazing. - Thank you for the lessons.
I cannot help wishing that you preserve them in a personal blog also ….with sections on the Trinity and Swathi ThiruNaaL.
Regards

RSR
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#525 Re: Mutthuswamy Dikshithar (Krithis)

Post by RSR »

about p-523
Ideal format . Is there a rendition by pre-1960 vocalists?
It will help

nAdopAsaka
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#526 Re: Mutthuswamy Dikshithar (First kriti, First kSetra and First upadeSa)

Post by nAdopAsaka »

the Dikshitars First kriti, First kSetra and First upadeSa

In the footsteps of nAdajyoti Muthuswamy Dikshitar..

The interest and comments are appreciated.

Indeed, there are lessons in every one of the Dikshitar kritis.

In fact the “upadeSa” is seen the moment the young poet gets off the bullock cart from BenAras.

There is general consensus in Carnatic history that “Sri nAthAdi guruguhO jayati” in rAga mAyA-mAlava-gaulA is
the first creation to issue from the vainika-gAyaka’s fingers and lips.

The musicological sophistication and nuances of this first-born kriti (which towers like mount Meru itself )
have been well described over the centuries, including aspects of alliteration and the multiple “ma”
syllable usages in the charanam with and without svara-akSara etc. etc.

Here instead we look at the words, ideas and their choices that dominate the Dikshitars debut
and its unique “lesson” motif.

With the very first breath in the kriti he invokes the word “guru” , makes reference to his mentor “CidambaranAtha” ,
and uses the classical teaching rAga mela # 15.
(it is noted that the tyAgarAja also salutes dozens of “gurus’ in the kriti “vidulaku mrokedda”).

Later in the kriti he also sings “ajHnAna DvAnta praCaNDa bhAskarO jHnAnapradAyakO, and
“mAyA-kArya kalanA hInO”, themes that will recur again and again in his later kritis and
which are signatures of light or prakASa dispelling ignorance that is the beacon of the Sri-vidyA.

Some of the choices are readily understandable…some others less so and therefore
merit examination and comment.

For example, here is the newly minted Devi-upAsaka, filled, as it were, with the air of vArAnAsi, and
purified by the gangA and by the Sri-vidyA, picking instead Tiruttani as his first kSetra
and the skandA as his first deity, undoubtedly also to the chagrin of all petty geo-politicians.

Even though the kriti starts with a reference to Devi (via the very first word Sri), she is hardly mentioned again.

It is possible the Dikshitar’s choice of this skandA for the first kriti/kSetra was a method of paying homage
to his other guru , his own father, given the similarity of his own given-name and that of a synonym
for this important deity. Later of course, he fully and completely solidifies this choice by perpetuating the
use of “guru-guha” as his own signature/mudra.

In my opinion, this iconic “guru-guha” was perhaps not as fully formed as a signature/mudra in this first kriti..
rather the word was deliberately chosen in line with the lessons motif being noted in this post.

In fact the Tiruttani deity and shrine itself is iconic to the famous teaching of the pranava by this skandA to the Siva himself. Indeed this first kriti fittingly ends with the words “mahESasya mahArthOpadESa".

As an aside, it can be noted that in all his later kritis, the word “upadeSa” is used only in reference to the subramanyA deity (not counting, of course, daitya-hitOpadeSa in the Sukra Navagraha kriti) . These others are the kAmboji and 3 others namely swAminAthena samrakSitOham -brindAvana sAranga, tArakeSvara dayAnidhE-sankarAbharanam, sEnApatE pAlayamAm-kASirAmakriyA

The most famous of these of course is the appearance as “TattvopadeSa kartre” in the solemn and unique “Sri subramanyAya namaste”, which is distinguished from all his other kAmbojis by its launch from the lower dhaivata, literally from the bowels of the primordial cave ! (all the others start at upper shadja or madhyama etc). This majestic kAmboji will deservedly be looked at separately. Any rasika who has somehow not heard !!? this kriti needs their head examined and/or replaced.

Back to mAyA-mAlava-gaulA, the significance of Tiruttani to the Dikshitar’s first kriti (and vice-versa) cannot be understated.

Indeed the Dikshitar describes Tiruttani as “mAyA-mALava-gauLAdi-dEsha "mahIpati" pUjita pada pradEsha” .

mAyapuri (or HaridwAr), mAlava and gaulA etc. are noted in the epics as domains of SivA, viSNu, brahmA etc.

Their acceptance of wisdom from the skandA is one of the special features of the Tiruttani shrine.
Notably also, the rAga mudra is therefore quite different from the way it is given in the
TiruvArur nilotpalAmba Devi kriti.

All this is not to diminish the Devi focus of the Dikshitar which is fully articulated later in his
musical life (indeed all the way to the singing of “MeenAkSi memudam” on his death bed).

It is mainly to point out certain key motivations and intentions of the very first kriti of the young student,
paying tribute to his mentors and the guru-SiSya tradition while himself sending the first of
his own game-changing messages, which I call the nAdOpadeSa.

It would be an abomination not to listen to this kriti after all these words..

Fortunately excellent modern versions from contrasting leading vidUSi’s are available

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8_5U97Hiwqg
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NFk3EofoHbU
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1x9D5n9ZUcQ

a fine veena rendition is also known
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QbwD6M_V_Vc

grateful thanks to singers, accompaniments and enabling agencies

grajesh10
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#527 Re: Mutthuswamy Dikshithar (SvetAranyam Krithis)

Post by grajesh10 »

nAdopAsaka wrote: 15 May 2021, 16:02 SvetAranyam Krithis


excellent veena
Arabhi
“SvEtAraNyESvaram bhajEham sadA brahma-vidyA nAyakI samEtam”
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wHWEjZqRDtU
I am looking for the audio of this krithi....On the Veena it sounds fabulous...Can anyone help, if there is an audio link?

nAdopAsaka
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#528 Re: Mutthuswamy Dikshithar (A hidden upadeSa deduced from the combined Guruguha Vibhakti set )

Post by nAdopAsaka »

A hidden upadeSa deduced from the combined Guruguha Vibhakti set

In the footsteps of nAdajyoti Muthuswamy Dikshitar..

a closer look at ALL the 8 Guruguha Tiruttani Vibhakti kritis reveals an interesting "upadeSa" , of sorts !

When organized as 8 pairs in sequence, it can be observed that each pair shares a common word !

A pair is defined as the kritis e.g. Vibhakti 1 and Vibhakti 2 called V1-V2...where V1 is SrinAthadi guruguho and V2 is mAnasa guruguharupam..etc etc..

The 8 pairs in sequence with the shared word are shown in list below
1. V1-V2 mAnasa
2. V2-V3 sadASiva
3. V3-V4 sat-Cit-Ananda
4. V4-V5 prakASa
5. V5-V6 sakala
6. V6-V7 bhusura
7. V7-V8 Atma
and finally
8. V8-V1 Cit-Ananda

Naturally "guruguha" is also shared by all the kritis V1 thru V8.

So all this translates roughly to
“mAnasa (O mind, contemplate that) sadASiva sat-Cit-Ananda prakaSa (sadASiva lights the path) sakala bhusura Atma Cit-Ananda (for all virtuous peoples' souls to achieve bliss) ....

guruguha is noted as "sadASiva-avatara" in the 3rd vibhakti kriti Sri gurunA

Some overlap of words is expected but the fact that the-exactly-1-set so found , that too in the sequence of the vibhaktis themselves, and which forms a somewhat “meaningful” overall message is a bit startling (at least to me).

ps. In alignment with post # 526 idea of the “teaching” motif , the 8th vibhakti in UdayaRavichandrikA actually mentions SiSya (student) twice !

Of course all this is an excuse to listen to this inimitable rendition by Prof. SRJ.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sCP-o3ctm1o

nAdopAsaka
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#529 Re: Mutthuswamy Dikshithar (Krithis)

Post by nAdopAsaka »

In the footsteps of nAdaJyoti Muthuswamy Dikshitar..

Post # 500 and others above discuss the Navagrahas in some detail.

Today being Saturday, what better way to propitiate Saturn the SanaisCara, i.e the slow-moving one,
than with the slowly dripping honey of MDR.

LGJ and PR add to the luster of this version, whose audio is quite good. Many thanks to the enablers.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EA82aA-GCAQ

A resonant veena alapana is relevant as well

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tgqH9_QWMT8

The swarajati of SyAma SaStri is interesting to compare
MSS does the honors !!

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4D5sUM_5Cno

nAdopAsaka
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#530 Re: Mutthuswamy Dikshithar (kamalAmbA navAvarana rAga mudras)

Post by nAdopAsaka »

kamalAmbA navAvarana rAga mudras

In the footsteps of nAdaJyoti Muthuswamy Dikshitar..

It is generally not well known (or comprehended) that in ALL 9 of the kamalAmbA navAvarana kritis ,
the rAga mudras are obvious, given or clearly inferrable.

I list the relevant lines below for clarity.

Most interesting are rAga mudras for the kritis in sahAna (which appears twice) and Ahiri.

It would be quite odd indeed for any particular one of this set NOT to possess some form of mudra.

I think there were very few rAgas starting with the word Ananda at the time of the Dikshitar, so I think Ananda bhairavi is certainly intended from what is given. Same for sankarAbharana kriti.

kamalAmbA saMrakShatumAm -Ananda-bhairavi
kamalaj-Ananda bOdhasukhI kAntAtAra pa~njara shukI

kamalAmbAm bhajarE -kalyani
nirvANa nija sukha pradAyinIm nitya kalyANIm kAtyAyanIm

Sri kamalAmbikayA -sankarAbharanam
ananta kOTyaNDanAyaka Sankara nAyikayA

kamalAmbikAyai kanakAMshukAyai -kAmbhoji
sakala saubhAgya dAya-kAmbhOja caraNAyai

Sri kamalAmbAyA: param nahi rE -bhairavi
sEvita bhairavI bhArgavI bhAratyA:

kamalAmbikAyA: tava bhaktOham -punnagavarAli
ramaNIya punnAgavarALi vijita vENyA:

Sri kamalAmbikAyAM -sahAna
sharIratraya vilak-ShaNa sukhatara swAtmAnubhOginyAM
viri~nci harI-shAna harihaya vEdita rahasya yOginyAM

Sri kamalAmbikE avAva -ghantA
santataM mukti ghaNTA maNi ghOShAyamAna kavATadvArE

Sri kamalAmbA jayati -Ahiri
p-Akari-pupramukhAdi prArthita sukaLEbarayA

An excellent set is available (from the DKJ school) direct from the TiruvArur sthala.

Here is the kAmboji
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KYRgfJQ-huA

and Bhairavi
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_KWV9f_LMm4

all the renditions are uniformly chaste as expected…..

.ps
..…scooters etc. showing up in the video etc. do not distract from the high quality of the renditions..

the odd horse visible !! seems to be enjoying too, judging from his tail swinging in step..

The Lost Melodies
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#531 Re: Mutthuswamy Dikshithar (Krithis)

Post by The Lost Melodies »

Not all the kritis with the guruguha mudra were composed by Sri Muthuswamy Diksitar. This could be very difficult to digest for many. Anyone who has indulged in the genuine compositions notated by Sri Subbarama Diksitar can relate to this statement. In many cases, though the sahitya is genuine, the music has been changed beyond recognition. Here is a video dealing with this issue.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S5V_fbrYVMM

nAdopAsaka
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#532 Re: Mutthuswamy Dikshithar (nAma-karana of the first Hamsadhwani kriti – vAtApi ganapatim)

Post by nAdopAsaka »

nAma-karana (naming ceremony) of the first Hamsadhwani kriti – vAtApi ganapatim

In the footsteps of nAdaJyoti Muthuswamy Dikshitar..

All great works of art attract forgeries. It is almost a natural law, this type of emulation and imitation,
whether nefarious or benign, which goes hand-in-hand with that other natural law,
the "Darwinism" that eliminates the weakest.

It is quite obvious no one has rushed to “forge” any of subbarAma’s compositions in the last 100 years,
and quite likely in the next 100 as well. The verdict of history appears in on this matter,
regardless of anyones digestive capabilities.

The Dikshitar stands the test of time because the appeal of his music is not bounded by his
musicology, nor limited by his vocabulary which are both remote to many.

Like only a scarce few of the other great vAggeyakAras, he crystallizes deeper and
timeless undercurrents of Hindu tattva and Hindu bhakti and nAma sankirtana, and of the
nAdopadeSa that resides within the Sri-vidyA.

This is the real “sAmpradAya” that needs to be exhibited, illustrated and illuminated again and again..

In the context of sAmpradAya, the iconic hamsadhwani kriti “vAtapi ganapatim bhajeham”
offers some interesting insights into the Dikshitar.

As is generally accepted the rAga was a creation of the Dikshitars father
(all forgers, impostors and pretenders and youtubers notwithstanding of course).

In my opinion, this kriti has not been examined fully (i.e. in last 200 years) for its content as
relates to the nexus of this unique father and his special son.

First , in particular as an invocation to the Ganapati , it is logical to assume this was also the first kriti
by the Dikshitar in this rAga. (there is another one to the Devi).

As the first kriti (by him or anyone else !) the effectiveness of choosing the specific vAtApi motif which is synonymous with the legend of a historic battle and victory for so-called vira-rasa becomes evident.

Additionally notice too that it is the only kriti of the Dikshitar to refer to the Ganapati as
holding the pomegranate , one of his favored fruits, with the word bijApur.
Although it literally means “full of seeds” there is little doubt it is being used to refer
also to a victorious site.
(In fact it is a synonym for Vijayanagara, which is some distance from the original location of this idol)

“vAtApi ganapatim” is also the only of his kritis !! to use the word “vAranAs-yam” (the elephant faced)
to refer also to vAranasi, where the Dikshitar was sent by his father to gain his first spiritual knowledge.

In the charanam he then uses the Kumbha reference (via the Agastya muni legend of the vAtApi)
to further solidify this indicator of BenAras.

The “reflection” of Siva in Guruguha and vice versa is a well known theme in the
Dikshitars kritis as is the teaching of pranava
(incidentally this word also appears in the kriti as “pranava swarupam”)

More significantly , just when the Dikshitar reaches the crescendo of the last, fast sangati of the kriti,
just before he adorns his own dear fathers magnificent creation with the rAga mudra,
he quite carefully uses a word that is the synonym for reflection i.e. bimba.

“harAdi guruguha toshita bimbam”
“hamsadhwani bhuSita herambam”

I have little doubt this is a reference to his reflecting on his fathers contribution,
as his own way of fulfilling the sAmpradAya . i.e. the legacy of his father and guru.

He already knows that rAmaswAmi Dikshitar will forever be known mainly thru his son’s kriti,
which is the son’s way of softening history’s blow.

excellent veena renditions are available
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aWN6TKlIhso
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=N6Jvl3DYp1o

MSG violin is terrific
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v5O7T6NsMRI

The Lost Melodies
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#533 Re: Mutthuswamy Dikshithar (Krithis)

Post by The Lost Melodies »

One of his composition has been misattributed. The beautiful kriti 'rama rama kalikalusha' is now believed to be that of Sri Muthuswamy Diksitar. Such was his standard!
His kriti 'sankaracharyam' could not have been saved, but for its mudra 'Mahadevendra Saravathi'. It is much easy to look into the sahitya and understand his greatness. But it requires patience, perseverance, and above all their kataksha to learn and analyze their compositions. Enjoying music is a journey and immersing in the old versions portraying the true musical creativity of the composer demands some maturity.

No one can forge a composition henceforth. All the details are available online and people like us are analyzing every detail of the composition. Certainly, this was not the case 100 years back.

It is much easy to emulate the style of Tyagaraja Svamigal if you are quite knowledgeable in Telugu or that of Muthuswamy Diksitar if you have basic knowledge in music and its allied fields. This is not the case with Sri Subbarama Diksitar. The use of 'anuprasa' demands extraordinary command over the language which was not an easy feat for many.

rajeshnat
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#534 Re: Mutthuswamy Dikshithar (Krithis)

Post by rajeshnat »

@nAdopAsaka
Just a small tip since you write quite a lot . At times when you type the wordwrap comes at irregular times and overall it affects readability. As a writer you pay lot of attention to whitespace which is wonderful. But some posts of yours are not evenly right justified

Solution to this that I follow is first type in notepad with wordwrap on with adequate whitespaces. But when you post remove the word wrap , copy and paste the content and put it right here. I used to never ask this but of late since i started wearing spectacles i am finding it bit difficult to read end to end. Thank you for your posts

In the event of you typing in mobile device (hope you do not), i use an app called colornote where i type there , it puts word wrap evenly and then do a select all copy and paste to the actual app. Some times i do that for whatspp , it is great .

In any case i prefer you to type in non mobile devices .The navaavArna and vathapi references are great.

nAdopAsaka
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#535 Re: Mutthuswamy Dikshithar (the nAgalingam Mohana which summarises the TiruvArur panCa linga)

Post by nAdopAsaka »

the nAgalingam Mohana which summarises the TiruvArur panCa linga

In the footsteps of nAdaJyoti Muthuswamy Dikshitar..

I appreciate rajeshnat comments and interest, now and in past as well.

What better way to clear the air of this thread of unfortunate distractions (not rajeshnat) than to observe and meditate on the TiruvArur panCa linga kritis of the Dikshitar.

It is not widely known (or perhaps not at all ?!) that another kriti of the Dikshitar also set in TiruvArur, summarizes these 5 lingams !!

This is the evergreen Mohana “nAgalingam namAmi satatam” , which actually references upto 10 different lingams including all the 5 well known lingas of the TiruvArur shrine.

Later the Dikshitar also uses Mohana-kara-lingam (the last word of this kriti) in his celebrated rAgamAlika.

I reproduce the kriti here for any and all naysayers (annotated with the descriptors I believe are provided by the Dikshitar that link the words to his panCa lingas/kritis)

P: nAgaliNgam namAmi satatam nAmarUpa prapanCAtIta lingam
A: nAgarAjamaNi bhUSita liNgam (hAtaka lingam) shrInagarasthita valmIkaliNgam
C: AgamavEdAntasAraliNgam (siddhIshvarAya) Adi madhyAnta rahitaliNgam (the transcendent aspect of AnandESwarena) mUla bhUta kAraN Atma liNgam nIlakaNTha svayamprakAsha liNgam (tEjomaya ?! CamatkAra lingam of sadACalESwara) nAgEndravinuta shaHNkara liNgam nAradAdinuta nandituraHNgam vAgIsha varada guruguhavandita sundara shiva mOhanakaraliNgam

I expect to discuss and highlight each of the panCa linga kritis separately.

At this time it is relevant, (perhaps even imperative) to hear nAgalingam in Mohana.

Once that glorious veena got going on mela 28/29 inside the TiruvArur linga sanctums, setting
a Mohana alongside nilAmbari, bilahari and kAmboji of the panCa linga kritis seems entirely reasonable.

DKP does justice in this older piece

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NLfbJuVcv5k

A nice and youthful modern version is available

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yAGX9oQUhpE

nAdopAsaka
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#536 Re: Mutthuswamy Dikshithar (panCa-bhuta linga kritis vis-a-vis panCa linga kritis)

Post by nAdopAsaka »

panCa-bhuta linga kritis vis-a-vis panCa linga kritis

In the footsteps of nAdaJyoti Muthuswamy Dikshitar..

On this auspicious Jyestha amAvasya day I make following post.

The nAgalinga Mohana discussed in post # 535 shows that the Dikshitar viewed the linga set as a composite, each variant just another facet/aspect of the all encompassing Siva.

It becomes imperative that an upAsaka ask whether this vision extends also to the panCa-bhuta linga set.

Unerringly, the benevolent Dikshitar fulfills this wish as well !

It is possible to find pairs of kritis one each from the TiruvArur panCa lingas set and panCa bhuta linga set, that bear a distinct and unique relationship to each other.

I give the relevant pairs found and notes below

1. “sadACaleswara” and “arunACala nAtham”
Siva as the lord of the mountains
The motif of light is also common via the “CamatkAra dipa” and the "tEjomaya linga"

2. “Anand-ESwarEna” and “JambupatE mAmpAhi nijAnanda”
Siva as the giver of joy and bliss
The rAga Ananda-bhairavi itself likely chosen with this theme in mind.

3. “Sri valmIka lingam SivArdhAngam” and “Ananda Natana prakASam”
the dancing Siva
( SivArdhAngam is associated with this aspect of the natarAja)

an excellent rendition and dance interpretation is given here
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0yaCdnvJ7SM

4. “hAtakeSwara samrakshatu” and “Cintaya mA kanda”
the gold and jewel clad Siva

"mAnikya maya kAnCi sadana" in the bhairavi for e.g.

The “pAtAla bilahari” reference in hAtakeSwara further confirms the Prithvi-linga connection

5. “siddhiSwarAya namaste” and “Sri kAlahastiSa”
the all-pervading AkAra of the Siva

“nIlAmbar-AkArAya” and the “samIr-AkAra”

In fact the Huseni "SrI kALahastIsha shritajanAvana samIrAkAra mAm"
reveals all 5 of the panCa-bhuta aspects and also gives the Huseni rAga mudra (Oshani) in the line

“kOsha-a-nil-AkASa- bhUmi-salil-Agni prakAsha shiva”

(it is noticeable that niLambari and nilAkASa are also related)

I will find some decent renditions in due course.

nAdopAsaka
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#537 Re: Mutthuswamy Dikshithar (the grand !! nAgalinga Mohana linga Krithi)

Post by nAdopAsaka »

the grand !! nAgalinga Mohana linga kriti

In the footsteps of nAdaJyoti Muthuswamy Dikshitar..

I believe ALL 5 TiruvArUr panCalingas as well as ALL 5 panCa-bhuta lingas are inferrable from the Mohana kriti.

As far as I can tell no such inference has been made in past.

Previously I had pointed to just the panCalinga kritis, as embedded in the TiruvArUr mohana. (in post # 535)

I believe it is the purpose of the Dikshitar to meditate on (and to have us meditate on) the diverse aspects of the Siva-linga and the Mohana kriti is a summary of different aspects of these entities.

I give below in black bold for TiruvArUr panCAlingas and red bold for panCa-bhuta lingas the relevant descriptors.


P: nAgaliNgam namAmi satatam
nAmarUpa prapaHncAtIta liNgam Samir-Akara
the linga beyond name or form

A: nAgarAjamaNi bhUSita liNgam (hAtaka lingam) shrInagarasthita
valmIkaliNgam

C: AgamavEdAntasAraliNgam (siddhIshvarAya)
the siddhi.+buddhi aspect

Adi madhyAnta rahitaliNgam (for both the Anandeswarena and Apa-linga)
water doesn’t have an end or beginning

mUla bhUta kAraN Atma liNgam dahar-AkAsa
ether is internal atmosphere, so Atma lingam

nIlakaNTha svayamprakAsha liNgam (both sadACaleSvara and the Agni -linga)

nAgEndravinuta shaHNkara liNgam pruthvi-linga
the great serpent obviously crawling around on the lingam emerging from the earth

nAradAdinuta nandituraHNgam
vAgIsha varada guruguhavandita
sundara shiva mOhanakaraliNgam

Some immediate conclusions I make are that the TiruvArUr panCalingas came after the panCa bhuta lingas were constructed.

The Dikshitar sees all linga entities as merely different aspects of Siva.

The Dikshitar has quite deliberately embedded these different aspects.

The choice of Mohana which is a pentatonic (panCa svara rAga ) and seemingly simple for the majestic Siva (the panCAkAara deity) is also significant..

It is my greatest joy to be "a fly on the wall" during the great vAggeyakAra's dialog with his inspiration..

nAdopAsaka
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#538 Re: Mutthuswamy Dikshithar (why is kAmbhOji the rAga for the Sri valmika lingam kriti )

Post by nAdopAsaka »

why is kAmbhOji the rAga for the Sri valmika lingam kriti

In the footsteps of nAdaJyoti Muthuswamy Dikshitar..

In five days of contemplating the 5 panCa linga kritis and the 5 panCa-bhuta linga kritis, Posts # 535, #536 and # 537 establish that there are connections between unique pairs of these 2 sets.

In three of these unique pairs the connections established are strong enough to also influence the rAga choice itself..i.e. the "pAtAla bila" reference to prithvi linga leading to rAga bilahari, similarly for the Ananda-bhairavi and niLAmbari linga kritis and their panCa bhuta counterparts as noted in post # 536.

In the case of rAga bhupAlam the rAga origin is understandably directly from the lore of the CamatkAra bhupAla/king and the “shadowless lamp” story. Of course the prakAsa aspect of the teja-linga is preserved when going from the arunACala nAtham panCa-bhuta-linga to the sadACaleSwara panCa linga.

It is my contention that all 5 kritis of the TiruvArUr panCa-linga set have rAga’s that are selected based on “describable” ideas…not left to some random whimsy.

So, on this fifth day of contemplation of these panCa-lingas, I address the question regarding the choice of rAga kAmbhOji for the Sri valmika lingam kriti.

As noted in previous posts the Sri valmika lingam SivArdhAnga icon cited in the kriti is synonymous with the “ardhanAriSwara” who carries the unmistakeable dancer motif same as the Ananda-natana kriti. (as per Adi Sankara ardhanAriSwara stotra lAsyakAyai/tandavAyA)

Incidentally, another feature unique to this pair of kritis is the common descriptor of animal leather hide (charma) as garment.

The common dance motif with the Ananda-natana kriti is emphasized further in “Sri valmika lingam” by the description of the Siva himself as the honey-bee (madhukara) that is “dancing” or buzzing about the lotus (ambhOja) that represents his consort, who is the soma-kulAmbikA.

The combination of somakulAmbika with ambhojam produces the line “somakulAmbikAm-bhoja madhukaram” which also gives the rAga mudra rather conveniently.

We could stop here but I believe this is only the “how” of the rAga /rAga mudra and not the “why” of the rAga choice.

Indeed several “facts” compel us to dig a bit deeper.

1. It is well known (hopefully by now) that it is in the Dikshitars DNA to convey all manner of messages, teachings and learnings/upadeSa , both overt and subliminal.

2. The kriti begins with the word “valmika” referring literally to the/an “anthill”.

3. Any mention of the word “valmika” (anywhere in the Indian subcontinent) cannot avoid consideration of the great author , the Adi-kavi of the great epic , the rAmAyana, even if it really appears as reference to an “ant-hill” linga in the kriti.

4. The Dikshitar is obviously sensitive to this fact. Indeed the kriti itself ends with the word “tArakam”, which is the famous rAma-mantra.

5. It can be comprehended also that this word “tArakam” is the essence of nAma-sankirtanam. On a philosophical plane, the Dikshitars music can itself be considered as emerging from nAmasankirtana , evolving from this primordial tAraka.

In fact the Dikshitar himself describes it unambiguously for example in the rAmaCandram bhAvayAmi vasanta with the line “nAma kIrtana tArakam”.

6. There is also an unmistakeable sense of growth (core word being "uja") associated with the ant-hill legend of the SivA, where the linga is supposed to have emerged and evolved as an ant-hill gradually developed. This is preserved also in the usage by the Dikshitar “yagna-udbhava”, where the primordial bow “emerges” from the brahmA’s yagna.

7. The kriti pointedly refers to the father of rAma, the king Janaka, via ”nata-janakam” which (I believe) adds to this evolutionary theme.

8. There is a primordial pot aka “kumba” that is associated with the brahmA yagna and which concealed the anthill and the linga that emerged out of it. This “kumba” is believed to contain the seed from which all creation grew, as per “kumba-konam” and tirUvArur temple lore.

With all these facts in hand, it is possible to assert that the rAga choice kAmbhOji for Sri valmika lingam “emerges” quite naturally as the combination (both phonetic and spiritual) of the ideas/words “kumba”+”uja” leading to kAmbhOji.

excellent renditions are available by senior vidwAns/vidUSi’s..many thanks !

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nksGqCnmcZk

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0tEhl-q1K3k

rajeshnat
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#539 Re: Mutthuswamy Dikshithar (Krithis)

Post by rajeshnat »

One more request ,when you state the links of renditions also mention the name of the vidwan and vidushi please

Your extra 10 seconds to mention names will help immensely all readers.

Smt Vedavalli rendering
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nksGqCnmcZk
And
Amritha Murali rendering
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0tEhl-q1K3k

nAdopAsaka
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#540 Re: Mutthuswamy Dikshithar (Krithis)

Post by nAdopAsaka »

In the footsteps of nAdaJyoti Muthuswamy Dikshitar..

rajeshnat, thanks for the interest and comments.

I appreciate that the rasikas site/forum has maintained a “documentation” and archival responsibility ever since its inception.

I like giving audio etc. examples since it helps illustrate some of the points and findings being made, which could perhaps help younger rasikAs.

I am indeed happy to make all my postings and new findings on this site.

I expect the links are preserved for the historical record and are searchable etc.

I will include names on links as much as possible. I am not averse to giving names of artists especially the stalwarts who are no longer with us..

For active vidWAns/vidUSi's I am a bit hesitant to quote names....since I do not know absolutely anyone of them personally.

ps. With regard to the first link of my post # 538 I believe that the voice is not of the senior vidUSi’s (as shows on the link) but rather of a senior vidWAn, I believe scion of the DKP family. The matriarch’s higher shruti !? appears to have dominated and influenced quite a bit.

rajeshnat
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#541 Re: Mutthuswamy Dikshithar (Krithis)

Post by rajeshnat »

nAdopAsaka wrote: 15 Jun 2021, 00:14
I will include names on links as much as possible. I am not averse to giving names of artists especially the stalwarts who are no longer with us..

For active vidWAns/vidUSi's I am a bit hesitant to quote names....since I do not know absolutely anyone of them personally.

ps. With regard to the first link of my post # 538 I believe that the voice is not of the senior vidUSi’s (as shows on the link) but rather of a senior vidWAn, I believe scion of the DKP family. The matriarch’s higher shruti !? appears to have dominated and influenced quite a bit.
Whether young or old does not matter, bottomline you are helping us to tag it right , prior to clicking the link. It is ok to give young vidwans/vidushis also, in any case they would also welcome it for sure in this age where every one is looking to be not lost in the performing crowd. GO FOR IT.

If you donot know the vidwan or vidhushi name that is fine.....

My whole point just putting link is not motivating many to click it. Please do thanks. Thanks for your posts.....

nAdopAsaka
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#542 Re: Mutthuswamy Dikshithar (tatvOpadeSa karta–complete “subrahmanyA” vibhakti set that spans all major skandA sthalas)

Post by nAdopAsaka »

tatvOpadeSa karta – A complete “subrahmanyA” vibhakti set that spans all major skandA sthalas

In the footsteps of nAdaJyoti Muthuswamy Dikshitar..

The Dikshitar strides across the desert of ignorance and silence, illuminating it with the nAdopadeSa and nAma-sankirtana and so creating the “Great Pyramids” of vibhakti sets, discussed in my many previous posts above.

This post is with specific regard to the subrahmanyA/skandA deity.

The celebrated Tiruttani Guruguha vibhakti set (one of the Dikshitars earliest “Great Pyramids”, see for example post # 526 of this thread) usually dominates discussion of his kritis to this unique personal deity.

However the importance of invoking this deity “under other names” is not lost on the Dikshitar, who is after all the nAma-sankirtana pandit.

In fact it can be seen that he has also constructed a “Vibhakti” set (the so-called grammar based invocation of names) where the sequence covers ALL the major skandA shrines other than Tiruttani !

I give below this organization, which I believe has not been fully comprehended in the past 200 years.

Generally his other Vibhakti sets are based in one location. (e.g. Tiruttani for the guruguha, the tyAgarAja at TirUvarUr, the various Devi vibhakti sets (mAyavaram, Madurai, kamalAmbA, abhayaAmbikA). bAlAmbika vibhakti set is an exception which I have discussed in post # 459 … however it is strongly centered on VaithiSwaran Kovil.

I give below with the unique skandA names in red and sites in bold black

Vibhakti 1 shrI subrahmaNyO mAM rakSatu
tOdI at tiruCendur

Vibhakti 2 daNDAyudhapANim daNDita daitya shrENim
Ananda bhairavi at palani

Vibhakti 3 subrahmaNyEna rakSitOham
shuddha dhanyAshi at kazuku-malai

Vibhakti 4 shrI subrahmaNyAya namastE namaste
kAmbhOji at swami malai

(i think this is from the tatvOpadeSa kartre motif where swaminAtha gave the pranava instruction to sivA)

Vibhakti 5 gajAdIshAdanyam najAnEham
nATakuraHnji at tiruparankunram
this kriti cites also the deity as skandam..

Vibhakti 6 SRNgAra shaktyAyudha dhara sharavaNasya
ramAmanOhari at sikkil

Vibhakti 7 SaDAnanE sakalam arppayAmi
kamAs at mAyavaram (from reference made to the Dhundi ganeSa)

sambodhana Vibhakti 8 swAminAtha paripAlaya
nAta at swami malai

the word swAminatha is an equally iconic name .

some runner-ups for sambodhana Vibhakti 8 are notably
shrI bAlasubrahmaNyA agacchAgragaNya - which bilahari is also at swami malai
(others to mention though purahara nandana-hamir kalyani, balasubrahmanyam surati, senApate-kAmavardhani)

The casual rasikA and even the jaded rasikA could well ask..why all this fuss with all this name-calling !!

I will try to answer that somewhat cynical question over the next few posts with the music itself....beginning with the majestic kAmbhoji, that starts at the lower dhaivata, straight from the guruguha’s cave !

I give 6 versions since this is appropriate for the six-faced deity and the rAga/kriti has broad shoulders to handle different interpretations. Grateful thanks to singers and upload agencies...

A veena version is relevant to begin this meditation (especially for the Dikshitars vainika-gAyaka paddhati )

1. S. bAlaCandar
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jWYzgDNOfHA

2. a modern veena version (Iyer brothers)
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QaWUoatvp0s

excellent renditions by modern vidwAns reminds us this kriti remains evergreen

3. RKMurthy
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SrAhCWLjQ8g

4. TMKrishna
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t07TJ7Hk-U0

The call of the stalwarts of old still echoes of course

5. MDR
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_1vEScMowro

6. KVN
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9a6CTxeB-1o

I feel this majestic kriti deserves more contemplation, including the construction.

The kriti structure resembles a mountaineer scaling the Everest !, first establishing base camp with the below ground level SaStAnga “namaste”, this attitude again with earth dwellers, the bhusurAdi, then stirring up like the great serpent uncoiling, to a stage 1 vAsuki takSakAdi sarpa , returning for supplies to base camps and also to bring up the more timid , then stage 2 vAsavAdi , encouraged along the way with sporadic glimpses of the peak sakala deva vanditAya !, , subsiding again as he melts with the first clear vision of this effort, dAsa jana abhiSta then emboldened to the final stages tApatraya harana tatvOpadeSa, victory with vijayavalli and bhuvana bhoktre and finally bhogamokSa at the peak.

rajeshnat
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#543 Re: Mutthuswamy Dikshithar (Krithis)

Post by rajeshnat »

nadopasaka
1.I know you have not covered may be all subramanya krithis. But i thought since there is runner up, I could find SwaminAthena Sam rakshitOham - brindavana saranga or brindavani . I think that is based on swamimalai , not sure . Is that in spurious krithi of MD and did you omit them

2 .I am wondering when Dikshitar travelled all the way to kasi and back , did he by any chance visit any Lord Subramanya temples or dieties elsewhere . Usually we associate Lord Subramanya that too in Tamilnadu where we even refer that as Thamizh kadavul. I am conjecturing even then in that era the locals of tiruvarur and tanjavur would have referred Lord Muruga as thamizh kadavul

3. Thank you for putting the names, your extra 2 seconds mean a lot to readers. I listened to S balachandar veena(what a mastery) and MDR intend to in the next 24 hours . Cherry picked only 2 faces skipped remaining 4 .

nAdopAsaka
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#544 Re: Mutthuswamy Dikshithar (Krithis)

Post by nAdopAsaka »

In the footsteps of nAdaJyoti Muthuswamy Dikshitar..

I was not making a comprehensive list, only pointing out that the kazuku-malai shrine had a place on list (which appears as the 3rd vibhakti). I am OK with swAminathenA. Incidentally there are also others in saurasenA, revagupti etc.

Regarding the skandA, and the Dikshitar "positioning" himself as “guruguha”, my feeling is this choice is governed also by the Dikshitars relationship with his own father/guru. I have tried to outline this in both post # 526 (the first kriti/ksetra etc) and post # 532 (on the hamsadhvani).

Of course this “position” conveniently also makes the Dikshitar an “observer” to the other great deities and has given all his words/songs/ideas to those deities an added dimension.

Conversely his approach to his own chosen deity either at the Tiruttani shrine or across the subrahmanya sites etc. shows a much more solemn perspective, in my opinion, both in rAga selection and kriti language (somewhat like the tonal difference between a biography and auto-biography). I will bring up one aspect of this in my next post.

Analysis of any poet, especially the Hindu tone-poets we call vAggeyakAras is at once futile and wondrous.

But I think if they can so easily "intrude" on our days and nights and our thoughts, then the rasikA is entitled to try to figure out what makes them tick, all the while of course enjoying their kritis.

Yes indeed balaCandar kAmbhoji veena is quite amazing. You are also in for a treat with the KVN piece.

nAdopAsaka
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#545 Re: Mutthuswamy Dikshithar (remarkable feature of SrI subrahmaNyAya kAmbhoji and SrI bAlasubrahmaNyA bilahari)

Post by nAdopAsaka »

a remarkable feature of the SrI subrahmaNyAya kAmbhoji and the SrI bAlasubrahmaNyA bilahari

In the footsteps of nAdaJyoti Muthuswamy Dikshitar..

The Sri subrahmaNyAya namastE kAmbhojI and the Sri bAlasubrahmaNyA agacchAgragaNya bilahari share a rather remarkable feature.

Out of all the Dikshitars kAmbhoji kritis (there are 7) "Sri subrahmaNyAya namaste" starts at the lowest svara, the lower dhaivata, as noted in my posts above.

Similarly in Sri bAlasubrahmaNyA, the Dikshitar adopts a solemn start !.

Indeed on comparing with all the Dikshitar’s bilahari kritis (there are 6) “SrI bAlasubrahmaNyA agacchAgragaNya” starts at the lowest svara/note, which is the shadja.

Ekadantam, hAtakesvara, Sri sAmbaSivam , etc. the ones to the Devis’ etc start their invocations at either upper shadja or middle dhaivata or Panchama.

In post # 542 above regarding the kAmbhoji, we have already seen the impact (or should I say cause/effect ?) of this starting point, not just on the lyric but the musical evolution of the kriti across the kAmbhoji scale, mirrored by the careful and gradual approach to the deity, from the “cave” to the “universe”, from "bhu" to "bhuvana".

I have noted elsewhere that the very word “bilah-ari” is derivable from ancient names for the “high-pitched neighing horse” of IndrA, known as the “ucchai-shravas” and also “bila/bilah”. (see post # 160 of the swAti TirunAl thread in the context of the syAnandUra kSetra bilahari of the mahArAjA, “santatam bhajAmiha” ).

There are many characteristic phrases of rAga bilah-ari that carry these unmistakeable high pitched , cascading sequences that also support this derivation.

Of course this natural ebullience of rAga bilahari is also expressed in the Sri bAlasubrahmaNyA..

Its just that the Dikshitar (like in the kAmboji) builds this particular invocation from the ground up.
, almost as if he wants to arouse this particular deity gently.

Another explanation is that since he already identifies strongly with the guruguha, there is no need to be shrill and strident right away at the start of the kriti (e.g. when he summons the madhurApuri Devi or the one-tusker).

Some nice examples of Sri bAlasubrahmanya I could lay my hands on

NRajagopal
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lHbVGrlmkx8

TNS
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Kdm3uCP1Z7g

another nice recent rendition a younger vidUSi S. Sriram
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8s60c0t14ic

Malladi Bros.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sy_TsZ26TKk

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#546 Re: Mutthuswamy Dikshithar (“subrahmanyEna rakshitoham” kriti ksetra as one of the 6 major skandA sthalas)

Post by nAdopAsaka »

“subrahmanyEna rakshitoham” kriti ksetra as one of the 6 major skandA sthalas aka “pazhamudircolai”

In the footsteps of nAdaJyoti Muthuswamy Dikshitar..

After the kAmbhoji and bilahari vibhakti kritis in the skandA vibhakti, I take up the suddha dhanyAsi.

I also need to clear up a minor issue.

The kriti “subrahmanyEna rakshitoham” of the Dikshitar should be properly assigned to the important “pazhamudircolai skandA” site (which is one of the 6 major skandA sthalas).

I had previously noted in post # 542 that “kazuku-malai” aka the hill of vultures was the shrine, merely regurgitating from a couple of textbooks.

I think however this is NOT the temple for “subrahmanyEna rakshitoham” noting also that “kazuku-malai” is NOT one of the 6 major skandA sthalas.

In my opinion, the so-called “kanka-Saila vihArEna” hill is most likely near the Azhagar hills temple complex (near Madurai) , where there is also another very important shrine to viSnu, named the kallazhagar kovil, which celebrates a famous “chitirai” festival which coincides with viSakha month.

The Dikshitar gives pretty unambiguously in the kriti a reference to both the viSnu and this festival, as well as rather cleverly the names of both words for the months ! shown in bold red. I note too that there has been some debate on the context of the viSnu deity, as connected to this kriti.

The "kanka-shaila" most likely could be a bird/fauna dwelling in these hills or else it is some other aspect/flora etc. of these hills.

I reproduce the kriti here for clarity.

subrahmaNyEna rakSitOham
Raga: shuddha dhanyASi
P: subrahmaNyEna rakSitOham aStAdasha lOcanAkhaNDEna
A: prabra vAmAdi pUjita padEna purandaramanOllAsakaraNEna
C: kankaSaila vihArENa varEna vallI dEva sEnA ramaNEna
akAra vRttEna sAnandEna bhOgamOkSa pradAnEna nityEna
vEHNkaTEshvara nAma rUpENa vicitra vishAkha mahOtsavEna
SukarahasyaprakAshaguruguhEna kRttikAsuta shuddha dhanyEna

But I think the connection is quite clear of this 3rd vibhakti kriti to this one of the 6 major skandA sthalas.
Also the mention of Suka-rahasya in the kriti elevates the status.

I give the complete subrahmanya/skandA list where the first five vibhaktis cover 5 of the 6 skandA sthalas.
The sixth of course is Tiruttani, for which the separate vibhakti set exists.

Vibhakti 1 shrI subrahmaNyO mAM rakSatu-tOdI at tiruCendur
Vibhakti 2 daNDAyudhapANim daNDita - Ananda bhairavi at palani
Vibhakti 3 subrahmaNyEna rakSitOham-shuddha dhanyASi at pazhamudircolai
Vibhakti 4 SrI subrahmaNyAya namastE -kAmbhOji at swAmi malai
Vibhakti 5 gajAdIshAdanyam nATakuraHnji at tiruparankunram
---
Vibhakti 6 SRNgAra shaktyAyudha dhara sharavaNasya-ramAmanOhari at sikkil
Vibhakti 7 SaDAnanE sakalam -kamAs at mAyavaram
Vibhakti 8 swAminAtha paripAlaya -nAta at swAmi malai

With all that geography squared away, its useful to get back to the music.

How interesting that the Dikshitar (who is ever sensitive to nuance) picks UdayaravichandrikA for the Tiruttani Guruguha but then Shuddha dhanyAsi for the Pazhamudircolai subrahmanya which color changes quite a bit with the
niSadha type !

I think the Tiruttani kriti is much more pensive.

Prof. SRJ version of the Tiruttani Udayaravichandrika was already referred to in my post # 528.

The reference to 18 eyes "aSta-daSa loCana" of the 6 headed subrahmanya deity is extremely rare for the Dikshitar.

It is of some interest that his kriti in "marga-Hindolam" calls the Candrasekharam as aSta-daSa vAdyAdi priyakaram.

(18 types of instruments). The suddha DhanyAsi upon graha-bheda produces Hindola among other rAgas !!


Nice, chaste versions are available

Ranjani-Gayatri sisters
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xwiQoTe-KX4

also Bombay Jayasree
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Z4cKV-td-UA

MSG violin is always one with the rAga
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LXT6W6mGLq0

nAdopAsaka
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#547 Re: Mutthuswamy Dikshithar (rAga khamAs, mA-gha-mAs (month) and some skandA upadeSa kritis of the Dikshitar)

Post by nAdopAsaka »

rAga khamAs, the mA-gha-mAs (month) and some skandA upadeSa kritis of the Dikshitar

In the footsteps of nAdaJyoti Muthuswamy Dikshitar..

Yet again the benevolent Dikshitar unerringly reveals himself to his faithful....His munificence is boundless !!

The choice of khamAs rAga for the skandA is undeniably linked to the mA-gha-mAs (mAgha month) through the so-called mAsi festival celebrating the upadeSa of Subrahmanya to his preceptor Siva.

This is why there are 3 separate kritis by the Dikshitar in rAga khamAs to the skandA.
(SadAnanE, daNDanAthayA rakSa mAm and Sri swAminAthAya).

There is no need to give rAga mudra in these kritis since the nature of the deity and month automatically and inherently describes this…Alternately it indicates the thought-process governing the choice of this rAga for these kritis/shrines.

This can be compared to the two other kritis also in khamAs but to the viSnu (santaNa gopalAkrSnam and sArasa dala nayana) where the rAga mudra appears overtly either as satybHAmAsametam or mAghamAsotsava.

“SadAnanE sakalam arrpayAmi” in the 7th vibhakti noted in the skandA vibhakti list shown in my post # 546 is located in the general mAyavaram/mAyilAduturai shrine.

There are several indicators of this site embedded in the kriti.
For example there is reference to the 6 or Sat-chakras (via SaDAdhArAdi shaktyAtmakE).

Not coincidentally (but deliberately !) several aspects of these chakras appear also in the mAyavaram abhayAmbA vibhakti set, especially in the kEdAram kriti as mulAdhAra and manipuraka ...where they are later also crowned by the sahasrAra.

There is also a reference to the “dhundi ganeSa” in SadAnanE.

In my post # 513 the significance of the “karikalabha mukha” aka dhundi ganeSa to the mAyavaram site and the abhayAmbika Devi is disclosed.

The 6 headed idol/icon SadAnanE descriptor is also very likely a direct reference to the specific temple as well.

vidwAn Sikkil Gurcharan does an excellent rendition

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q34EWeAZOYA

I couldn’t find a decent daNDanAthayA rakSa mAm rendition

However I did find a nice version of “Sri swAminAthAya”. This kriti is superseded somewhat by the “Sri subrahmanyAya” kAmboji, both are 4th vibhakti kritis of course referring one way or the other to the tatvOpadeSa given at swAmi malai.

Sri swAminAthAya is nicely illustrated by vidUSi Neyveli Ramalakshmi

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VVoxc8VmuQE

nAdopAsaka
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#548 Re: Mutthuswamy Dikshithar (a detour into the Dikshitars lalitOpAkhyAna kritis)

Post by nAdopAsaka »

a detour into the Dikshitars lalitOpAkhyAna kritis

In the footsteps of nAdaJyoti Muthuswamy Dikshitar..

The "daNDanAthayA rakSa mAm" kriti reference to khamAs rAga in above post allows a short detour into the lalitOpAkhyAna kritis of the Dikshitar.

This set of 19 or so kritis is generally linked via specific names of the lalitA Devi that are associated with the “story” told thru the sahasranAma.

Of course there are scores of kritis which are not classified as “lalitOpAkhyAna” where the Devis’ names appear (see the begada in post # 516 or any of the Devi navAvarana kritis for example).

Some of the more famous kritis of this lalitOpAkhyAna set are “Sri ramA Saraswati" in nAsAmani and “mAtangi Sri rAjarAjeSwari” in ramAmanohari. It may be possible also to identify aspects of some , if not all, of the kritis in this set with specific TiruvarUr area shrines.

The short detour here is warranted because the “daNDanAthayA rakSa mAm” kriti is one of his lalitOpAkhyAna set, naming an aggressive aspect of Devi as commander of forces, the sEnArAjnyA and destroyer of viSukra, the bhanda-sodara. The subduing of rAkSaSas and what they represent is not a one-time event !.

They need to be quelled repeatedly and so the “story” goes on. Accordingly both sEnArAjnyA and viSukra evolve into sEnApate and tAraka.

Of course the Dikshitar is reading this same story !

He uniquely signs-off the kriti with the usage “guruguha dharayA” which can be interpreted both as the Devi that “supports the "guruguha/skandA” and also as from where the guruguha/skandA is actually “derived”. Indeed both the words "dhara-yA and "de-rive" share a common idea of “flow/transforming", as from one idea or concept to the next.

The usage of rAga kha-mAs (noted in post # 547), completes the analogy.

The distinction between “names” being as subtle as the distinction between “rAgas”, this temporary detour I made ends with another lalitOpAkhyAna krit “vArAhIm vaiSNavIm” to an aspect of Devi somewhat close (but not the same !) as the “dandAnAtha Devi”.

fine versions of this vegavAhini are available

vidUSi B. SrirAm
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cyGL0NZ3lB0

vidUSi S. rAju
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wS2B8-hUyC4

nAdopAsaka
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#549 Re: Mutthuswamy Dikshithar (moon-lit nights in mAyavaram ksetra..asAveri kritis and the deSya rAga for the divya-deSam)

Post by nAdopAsaka »

of moon-lit nights in mAyavaram ksetra .. Dikshitars asAveri kritis and the deSya rAga for the divya-deSam !!

In the footsteps of nAdaJyoti Muthuswamy Dikshitar....

A beautiful thing happened as I was making my way back from the lalitOpAkhyAna detour made in my above post.

In one sweet “fragrant” stroke, the Dikshitar, with apAra karunA, revealed his moon-motif, in its entirety !

The vision takes into account the “parimala ranganAtham” krSnA, as the savior of the moon, as well as both the asAveri kritis, one to Candra (the Navagraha kriti) and the other to “kumAraswAminam”.

We start with the observation that in the lalitA sahasranAma, the subrahmanya deity is named uniquely as “kumAra”, the prince.

Naturally this particular word is also honored specifically by the Dikshitar.

One does not need to go far to find the terrific kriti “kumAraswAminam” set specifically to the mAyavaram ksetra subramanya temple.

Not at all surprisingly it is also set to asAveri rAga same as the night-time Candra Navagraha kriti which is linked to the vaidyalinga ksetra temple (e.g. vidhum for medicinal camphor) , also of the mAyavaram region. I have described the choice of this rAga in post # 500 in connection with all the other navagraha rAga choices/mudras given or implied.

So what does all this have to do with the Dikshitars “hamir” kalyAni" kritis ?

First we note that the ksetra for the “hamir kalyAni’s” is also in mAyavaram, indeed just a few miles from the vaidyalinga temples.

In fact this viSnu temple is known as a Divya-deSa site.

It is the Parimala Ranganatha Perumal Temple or Tiru-indu-luri, which has specific reference to the moon via the ‘CandraSapa vimoCana" theme.

Separately, it can be noted that the great singing saint meerA, who lived in dwAraka (the Uttara one) and sang around 1500 AD, is well known as a prime devotee of krSnA. It is certain the Dikshitar heard of her while in benAras.

The choice of a rAga which crystallizes the connection to both this name "meerA" and this northern deSa/area (hameera) and the deity krSnA/ranganAtha/dAmodaram, seems quite reasonable, if not a dead certainty.

In fact the use of this deSya rAga for this divya-deSam has a deeper relationship.

Now the ocean of mercy begins gently to swell.

There can be no doubt that the Dikshitar regarded the moon as beloved to krsnA. After all the deity krSnA symbolizes the Rohini constellation, and indeed, in the moon-day Navagraha kriti he says , at the very end “rohini priyakara Caturam” ! .

The rAga Hamir, a night-time, or rAtri-prahara rAga is of some antiquity and notably the word Hamir or Hameera is itself derivable from the Arabic “Ameera” for prince !

This brings us back to the “kumAra”.

In fact there is a famous prince or kumAra associated with krSnA, none other than the iconic arjunA, prince of the pAndavAs !!

Now the tsunami of our realization begins to reach its crest.

In the great epic (aka the mahA bhArata) , this same prince arjunA receives the essence of wisdom, the GitA, while riding in a gold-emblazoned chariot with the “pArtha-sA-rathi”.

The GitA is undoubtedly a “Sruti-sAram” ! ...who can argue that..

and it is easy to see why the epics considered this wisdom also as “kArtta-svara”, or the golden words/song, kArtta being derived from root krta (krta yuga etc, the golden age).

In fact the usage “kArtta-svara” appears in the scriptures in the context of the primordial chariot and charioteer “papraccha ratham arudhah kArtta-svara-paricchadam”.

Having crested, the tsunami of our awareness now begins to disintegrate into a thousand droplets of joy !

In kumAraswAminam, which is quite obviously sung to the "other kumAra"/prince, the charioteer , the golden chariot , golden necklace, golden arms, shining body etc. etc etc. have all blended into the skandA/subrahmanya himself...
who is delivering the golden message of the “tatvOpadeSa” described by the Dikshitar also as “kArtta-svara-hAram , Sruti sAram”.

Of course the word also allows him to embed the asAveri rAga mudra via kArtt-a-svara-hAram while satisfying technical poetry rules.

What would I give to have been in the dust kicked up by that short bullock-cart ride from the one sthala to the next , with that glorious veena resonating in me, hearing the myriad Names in song, under the gentle eye of the moon-graha.

There are however, excellent renditions available to relive those moments somewhat....many grateful thanks to singers and accompaniments and the upload agencies.

kumAraswAminam on veena by S. Mahadevan
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5qds_Cb3iqM

vidUSi P. Sugavanam
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_WBaQuIs0Nk

outstanding parimala ranganAtham illustrations

veena kalpakam swaminathan
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pL1bUvun5_E

amruta murali
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SWggOrhVsIc

sandhAvandana S rAo
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Y-2V6K9wdrI

this is the parimala ranganAtham samaSti charana kriti (different from above)
by vidUSI N. sriranjani
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pD0eBeCJ0TU

Incidentally the other hamir kalyAni kriti of the Dikshitar is also to the purahara- subrahmanya

nAdopAsaka
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#550 Re: Mutthuswamy Dikshithar (the compelling Nava-vidha bhakti mudrA’s in the Dikshitars tyAgarAja vibhakti set)

Post by nAdopAsaka »

the compelling Nava-vidha bhakti mudrA’s in the Dikshitars tyAgarAja vibhakti set

In the footsteps of nAdaJyoti Muthuswamy Dikshitar....

My “bullock-cart ratha-Kalpana” continues with the gentle grace of the Dikshitar…

...His munificence is indeed boundless !!..

It is perhaps not comprehended at all that each of the Dikshitars so-called tyAgarAja vibhakti kritis have either overt/clear or embedded mudrAs for each of the famous nava-vidha bhakti modes ( the 9 ways of worship).

Given that the original nava-vidhi bhakti idea emanated from the nArada himself, it should NOT however be a surprise that the Dikshitar would NOT ignore it.

In my opinion, the Dikshitar chose this particular “tyAgarAja” vibhakti for deploying the nava-vidha bhakti because of the giant and deep bhakti footprint of that other tyAgarAja... who was his omni-present musical and spiritual contemporary.

So now we can finally say that a “vi-bhakti” set is also the “vi-dha bhakti” set ...

...from the mundane/grammar to the sacred/worship-modes

I show below how each bhakti-vidha is embedded in the tyAgarAja vibhakti set.

I added the dhyAna kriti in gaulA to the list to make the total of 9 ( 1 + the 8 vibhakti set).

In capitals is the bhakti-vidha/mode and in red bold is the word or embedded pointer left by the Dikshitar.

KIRTANA as "tyAgarAjam bhajare" where bhajan = kirtana

SMARANA as "guruguha smaraNEna" in tyAgarAjena Samrakshitoham

SEVA as “guruguha gaNEsha rAjO samsEvita” in tyAgarAjO VirAjite

ARCHANA/PUJA as “shrI guruguha pUjita” in tyAgarAja pAlayASu mAm

VANDANA as “vAgIshAdyakhila dEva vandita” in tyAgarAjAya namaste

DASYAM as “bhakto bhavAmi” in Sri tyAgarAjasya bhakto bhavAmi

bhaktoham or dAsoham are the words used interchangeably in all the Dikshitars 6th vibhakti motifs which this is in

SAKHYAM as “vIra vasanta tyAgarAja mAm tArayASu

Here “sakhyam” is interpreted as trust and confidence..same as in the guruguha devakriya kriti..
where tArayA is the sign of the cosmic “ferry-man” or guide and therefore the "companion" or "sakhya" in the journey

(some decades later the mahArAja also sings the mukhAri bhavati viSwASo with precisely this same intent !)

ARPANAM in "tyAgarAjE kRtyA-kRtyam arpayAmi"

SHRAVANAM “rAgAdi vritti rahita” in tyAgarAjAd anyam Na jAne

The description of the tyAgarAja/SivA in this kriti uniquely as “rAgAdi vritti rahita” is of considerable significance.

"rAgAdi vritti rahita" is one of the crucial attributes identified in the "kathA" uPaniSad.

To understand this kathA/story one has, of course, to “hear” it first.

Incidentally, so also is “ratha-kalpana” a corner-stone of the kathA upAniSad.

Is there a better chariot or charioteer for the flights of our imagination than the words and song and nAdajyoti of the Dikshitar ?!

I give a sample of fine renditions of one of the tyAgarAja vibhakti kritis in rAga begada..depending on my other excursions I expect to give examples of the other kritis in this set as well.

It is always good to hear youthful efforts that confirm that the reach of this music and its nAda is universal and not confined to any age group....I thank the singers/parties and am grateful

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fJN7Uk6zLrc (V. Maitreyi)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jcwYUXzXR94 (L. Srividya..excellent job..)

vidwAns and viDUSi’s have also presented excellent interpretations..I found some examples , of course there are several others available as well

A. Murali
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OvjSqX8ab4s

ShertalaiKNRS
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xqa41_zZZf4

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