Thyagaraja (Krithis)

Carnatic composers (other than performing vidwans)
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nAdopAsaka
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#501 Re: Thyagaraja (Krithis)

Post by nAdopAsaka »

Only the tyAgarAja can ask the lord rAma if kausalyA has spoken ill of him !

On rAma navami, it is important for the nAda-upAsaka to remember also the Mother kausalyA.

In the rarely-heard SankarAbharanam “Enduki Calamu”, the tyAgarAja lists all the ladies (kE-kAnta jeppEnO ?) he thinks may have "turned the lord against him" naming kausalyA, ahalyA, Sabari , the sitA dEvi and swayamprabhA !!

It is somewhat notable that the tyAgarAja sees these illustrious ladies as his "rivals" and that he is measuring his own devotion and his musical pUja against their obvious proximity to the lord.

There are a few other kritis where the tyAgarAja remembers the Mother kausalyA.

Two of these are illustrated here with nice renditions.

Many thanks to artistes and upload agencies.

Sri rAma jayarAma – yadukula kAmbOji

CArulatA R
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WRnzZLNdKzI

pantula ramA
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=q3oymwVV-dM

kamalAptakula – brindAvana sAranga

sitAlakSmi V
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FY2T2oNRJSw

sreedEv R
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AGHqkITfSNk

kanyAkumari violin ensemble
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=M5zb9EFX8r4

rajeshnat
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#502 Re: Thyagaraja (Krithis)

Post by rajeshnat »

Nadopasaka
I am reading each of your post on T MD and ST. Some are dense , all said thank you.

My request is for you to preferably space either once a day or better yet once in 2 days, for eg your 2 days back on ST is very detailed as with many MD, we all should read it and not jump because of lack of time or sustained concentration. Also I take some more time to say hear the rare raji gopalakrishnan singing say kalayami raghuramam in Begada. Any new unheard versions is a likely must hear for me . You can always type in notepad in one go then copy and paste once in a day or once in 2 days one post.

All said keep up your posts

nAdopAsaka
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#503 Re: Thyagaraja (Krithis)

Post by nAdopAsaka »

rAjeshnat, I appreciate the interest and comments.

I must admit I got a bit carried away with the fervor of rAma navami etc.

Although I do feel one should (within legal/moral bounds) get “carried away” many times before being “carried out”.

Our vAggeyakAras are all about being carried away.

I first heard the GNB kalayAmi bEgada, more than 40 years ago, that too from a 10th hand reproduction of a cassette tape recording. It was already of 20+ years vintage at that time but the golden voice shone through.

Of course there are many other highly skilled vidWAns and viDUSi’s.

I wanted to contrast the lightning strikes of GNB with a bit more mellow version and vid. rAji G was a fine effort.

nAdopAsaka
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#504 Re: Thyagaraja (Krithis)

Post by nAdopAsaka »

sAram - ati-sAram ! , the essence of the sAma gAna

Only the tyAgarAja can distill the essence of the sAma gAna in 4 short powerful lines.

Background
All the true vAggeyakAras of the nAda-sampradAya fully recognize and pay homage to the sAma gAna of antiquity.

However old that “gAna” may be.. (and self-appointed “historians” on both sides of the globe continue to fight meaninglessly over its exact timeline). These fools do not realize that it remains always fresh for the Hindu nAda-upAsaka especially through the kritis of the Hindu sAdhus we call our vAggeyakAras.

The sAma-vEda’s special “meter/speech/song” subset, the CAndOgya upAniSad opens with the upAsana of the Om/pranava = the udgita as the essence of all essences, the rasa of all rasas.

It says

Om ityetad akSaram udgItam upAsIta
eSAṃ bhUtAnAṃ pṛthivI rasa - pṛthivyA ApO rasa - apAmoSadhayo rasa- oSadhinAṃ, puruSo rasa- puruSaSya vAgraso - vACarg rasa - ṛCa sAma rasa - sAmna udgIthO rasa


The Om/udgita is the ultimate root traced via the sequence “All things – earth – water – plants – man - speech – the rik vEda – the sAma vEda - Om/udgita” .

The next hundreds upon hundreds of stanzas codify the unique road to enlightenment that the sAma gAna reveals.

Of course this comes with rules including the respect for vows and the truth and integrity,.
(Naturally these concepts are lost on modern two-faced two-meaning proponents. Woe unto all of them, they are banished forever to the world of untruth , darkness and deathly silence. )

For the nAda-upAsakas , there is the sAramati “mOkSamu galadA”

There can be no doubt that the rAga “sAramati” was deliberately chosen by the tyAgarAja to represent (with his own musical sculpture of 4 lines) the “essence”, the “rasa”, the "sAra" of the “idea of enlightenment” = the mOkSa offered by proper nAda-upAsana.

In the brilliant “mOkSamu galadA” (the first line) the tyAgarAja links “sAkSAtkAra” to “sadbhakti sangIta” (the 2nd line) and the “pranava” to the sapta-swara nAda”(3rd line)

These profound ideas have been echoed through the ages by the Adi-Sankara as well in the smritis of yAgnavAlkya.

It is what the tyAgarAja says at the end that is most enlightening !

vInA vAdana lOlu-dau Siva-manO vidham erugaru (the 4th and last line)

mOkSa and the vinA

On the face of it, the teaching of the line here is that....”the upAsaka must realize, that even for the Siva, the way to bliss is through the nAda, realizable by the vinA”

Indeed, the smriti commentary on the sAma vEda also says “vinA vAdana tatva gyAm ..mOkSa mArga niyacchati” , linking mOkSa to the vinA and extolling the vinA as the core sound of the Om/pranava nAda.

Since “vAdana” can suggest both “sound” as well as “sounding” the possibility emerges that the line also implies that the Siva is a vainika.

Indeed in both scripture and sculpture, the Siva is known as “vinA-dhara” or vinA-dakSinAmurthy, holding and playing the vinA.

Some clarity is needed for the nAda-upAsaka.

It is the other great nAda-yOgi who is also a vainika that sheds light on the issue.

The rahasya of the Siva enjoying the vinA

The Dikshitar as a devout Sri-vidyA adherent repeatedly constructs and describes in his navAvaranas, the path to enlightenment as manifested in the Siva-Sakti union.

Now the dust begins to clear.

Besides the obvious saraswati , multiple dEvis are described as vainika’s by the Dikshitar as they approach and consummate the Siva-Sakti union within the navAvarana stages.

For example the abhayAmbA in the 9th Cakra CAmaram, the kamalAmbA in the 7th Cakra Sahana, the madurAmbA minAKSi in the 5th Cakra gamaka-kriyA as shown in posts # 564, 565, 567, 568.

Post # 568 also showed the nilOtpalAmbA navAvarana 9th Cakra kriti as the "Sri nIlOtpala nAyikE" ritigaula corresponding to the sarva-Anandamaya Cakra with the Cakra mudra “AnandAtmAnubhavE”. That this dEvi is ardha-SarIra with the tiruvArUr Siva is noted in the 4th Cakra mAyamAlavagaula kriti. So it is no surprise that this 9th Cakra kriti also ends with the indirect reference to the vinA with the words “SAradE gAna lOlE”.

Yet another example is the "vinA-vAdana-viduSyAmbikA" in the tOdi at vEdAranyam , which is a sapta-vitanka kSEtra where the union/marriage of Siva-ambikA is completed.

the Siva-Sakti union and mOkSa = self-realization as taught by the Sri-vidyA

The vinA playing dEvi is united with the Siva at the moment of enlightenment.

This is why the vinA is always associated with the theme of self-realization that the Siva-Sakti union symbolizes.

The Siva may well be a vainika on his own , but unless he is united with the vinA-playing dEvi, even he will be bereft of the ultimate enlightenment.

And that is the sAram of the sAramati kriti for the nAda-upAsaka.

fine examples are available, thanks to artistes and upload agencies

mOkSamu galadA - sAramati

triCUr brothers
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IE9_JUDBPGM

mandolin srinivAs
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5neNK_slZKk

MDR (which for effect began with the anu-pallavi ...as if MDR needs more effects)
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FGKGTJNGIpU

nAdaswaram haribAbu
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xpR02Xpve1E

nAdopAsaka
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#505 Re: Thyagaraja (Krithis)

Post by nAdopAsaka »

the basis for the tyAgarAjas hamsa-dhwani kritis

Only the tyAgarAja's "song of the swan" hamsa-dhwani kritis refer to the ancient name of the hamsa = swan = Sun = raghu !

In fact he uses it TWICE .

in "raghu-nAyakA" as well as "Sri raghu-kula mandu"

Post # 532 of the Mutthuswamy Dikshitar kritis discussed the origins of the "vAtApi ganapatim" kriti in the "haMsA soham" mantra.

In contrast, the tyAgarAja takes the literal meaning of the word "hamsa =swan" from its description as the "Sun = raghu" as given variously in the scripture (e.g. 'uSasi hamsa mudIkSya" where the dawn Sun is uSa)

Now it is impossible not to hear these kritis !!

raghunAyaka

MSG
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=asSyk85cwXU

Hyd Bros
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Wz26ZaoGUVA

Priya sisters
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c6o5Jt2LM5c

Sri raghukula mandu

flute sikkil sisters
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tBzzCRb8Sh8

ambikApuram sivarAman
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=75qf2PiisnI

gs1968
Posts: 19
Joined: 01 May 2009, 07:35

#506 Re: Thyagaraja (Krithis)

Post by gs1968 »

Does anyone have a list of Thyagaraja krithis to which chittaswaras have been added by others later, along with the name of the musician who added on the chittaswara?

nAdopAsaka
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#507 Re: Thyagaraja (Krithis)

Post by nAdopAsaka »

the guide, the method, the nAya... of the nAya-ki

Only the tyAgarAja dares to compete with the brahmA himself for the darSana of lord rAma !

The nAda-upAsaka is thrilled to add the nAyaki "kanugonu soukhyamu" to the list of famous kritis described in recent posts here, all unrecognized hitherto, whose explorations lead to a greater appreciation of the nAda-yOgi and his intent and state of mind at the moment of their creation.

There are several powerful messages in the short nAyaki, which need to be heard through the fog created by 200+ years of the cacophony of swara-demonstrators, deceptive notation-mongers and academicians.

The opening gambit reveals the teaching delivered by the tyAgarAja which is at once the basis for the rAga choice itself.

Why ?

Because the word "nAya" itself means the guide or path or method.

In this case it is that method which assures the tyAgarAja of the darSana of lord rAma.

With the words "kanugonu soukhyamu kamalaj-ukaina galguna" the tyAgarAja questions whether it is possible for brahmA (= kamalaja) to achieve this same darSana !

The line is epic tyAgarAja "tongue-in-cheek" since the rAmAyana itself springs from the discourse of nArada to vAlmiki.

And nArada , that travelling vainika and "information-provider" (but of variable IP address), is regarded as symbol of brahmA, in fact as brahmA's offspring.

Of course, the tyAgarAja acknowledges elsewhere, that the sage nArada has received the profuse darSana of lord rAma (e.g. "vara nArada" in the vijayasri kriti).

What the tyAgarAja is teaching in the nAya-ki kriti is that "even brahmA or nArada or any other deity or entity" MUST follow the proper "nAya" or "path" to attain the "sukham" or bliss that the tyAgarAja has ascended to.

And this "nAya" is to have integrity and resolve and honor and to SHUN ALL MANNER of deception.

The charanam phrase "tanu Oka, manasa Oka, vESa Oka" is a resounding "slap in the face" direct from the vAggeyakAra himself, for all the two-faced /two-meaning proponents, putrid researchers and their fraudulent intent. Untold woe unto all of these criminals.

"For that nAya", the nAya-ki is well illustrated in these examples.

kanugonu soukhyamu - nAyaki

rAmnAd kriSnan
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CVkfvOlwHA8

mAmbalam sisters
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zVJ-dvLdQDs

vidUSi vEdavalli
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_Q5HsHfuQoY

nAdopAsaka
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#508 Re: Thyagaraja (Krithis)

Post by nAdopAsaka »

questions and answers

the tyAgarAja needs only about 4 lines each in two kritis to frame his profound dilemma and in a third kriti to give his equally profound answer.

Two of these kritis have formed the cornerstone of hundreds of kutcheris in last several decades.

Inspite of that, their meanings retain their value, to the nAda-upAsaka.

the SankarAbharanam

In "Enduku peddala valE buddhi ?", it will be immediately observed that several attributes described by the words used by the tyAgarAja "tatva-artha, nAtha, nAda-vidyA" apply not just to lord rAma but are also iconic of the Siva.

In particular "bhEda-rahita vEdAnta" is the cornerstone of the Adi Sankara teachings.

"abhEda buddhi" itself appears also in sAnkhya-tatva writings.

And the SankarAbharanam rAga choice is also suggestive when "rAm-ayyA" is interpreted as the rAma-nAtha.

from "vada-riti" to the riti-gaulA

In "dvaitamu sukhamA ? advaitamu sukhamA ?", the tyAgarAja sharpens the question !

Naturally he has to use "riti-gaula" when asking for the enlightenment of which "riti" or path is to be chosen.

He demands a careful explanation "vistAra-mugAnu" and in the same breath begins to glimpse his answer.

It is no coincidence that in this one kriti, the lord rAma is described specifically as enjoying and embodying the 5 bhUta lingA elements "gagana pavana tapana, bhuvana and avana" iconic of the Siva !

Which brings us to the third kriti

the bEgada

In "nAdOpAsana CE", the tyAgarAja resolves both the above questions.

He sees no distinction between Sankara and nArAyana in the enlightenment given by nAda-upAsana.
And he discards the trappings of mantras/tantras for the nAda-yOgi.

the use of a rAga that is bhASAnga between hari-kAmbOji and Sankara-Abharanam is itself indicative of the "musical" peace the tyAgarAja has made.

And while there are many bhASAnga rAgas traversing between mEla 28 and 29 only bEgada carries the connotation of "cream" or essence as seen in the somewhat trite "bEgada mIgada".

Enduku peddala valE - SankarAbharanam

hEramb-hEmanth flute
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c3ydBAxp1iU

MSS
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=x5D_1_ohTUs

ranjani-gAyatri
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AazxDZLXP-c

dwaitamu sukhamA - ritigaula

MDR
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hGfBfFdUo9k

vid. bharat Sundar
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TFk5W4EY2I0

nAdopAsana CE - bEgada

musiri SI
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5xAfIrU2J-s

KVN
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EnjAUCVfrxk

TS kalyAnarAman
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=K3WNhMKvRH4

nAdopAsaka
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#509 Re: Thyagaraja (Krithis)

Post by nAdopAsaka »

the mantra and the rAga

Only the tyAgarAja properly invokes the ganapati with the swara-aSta rAga = saurASt-ram in "Sri ganapati ni".

Why ?

Because the formal ganapati invocation, the ganapati gAyatri mantra is also "aSta swara" = 8 syllables !

E-ka-dan-tA-ya-vid-ma-hE
vak-ra-tun-dA-ya-dhi-ma-hi
tan-nO-dan-ti-pra-CO-da-yAt

As can be seen, the "ganapati gAyatri" mantra is also in 3 lines like the widely known "surya gAyatri" mantra.

In fact it is this "surya gAyatri" that the Dikshitar refers to with the phrase "saura-aStArna mantrAtmanE" in his saurAStra surya graha kriti "suryamUrtE namOstutE" .

The "Sri ganapati ni" kriti is regarded as invocation preceding the tyAgarAja's prahlAda bhakti vijayam.

Not surprisingly, the tyAgarAja's other famous saurAStram kriti, the mangalam "nI nAma rupa mulaku", also refers to prahalAda in its penultimate line.

Indeed the aSta-swara (8 syllable) structure is also observed in the mangalam (in key lines)

nI-nA-ma-ru-pa-mu-la-ku
pra-ha-lA-da-nA-ra-dA-di
bhak-tu-lu-po-ga-du-cun-dE
nI-nA-ma-ru-pa-mu-la-ku
rA-jI-va-na-ya-na-tyA-ga
rA-ja-vi-nu-ta-ma-ii-na
nI-nA-ma-ru-pa-mu-la-ku

It is safe to say that while the tyAgarAja ganapati kriti has been rendered hundreds of times, the mangalam kriti renditions are easily into the thousands, because it concludes almost every kutcheri ever sung !

And, (as far as I can tell) , there has been a total lack of comprehension that the rAga choices made by the tyAgarAja in this case (and all the others noted recently in this thread) are NOT random.

In any case, the nAda-upAsaka revels always in the tyAgarAjas brilliant visions.

Sri ganapati ni sEvimpa rArE

priya sisters
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Dfn4gMnWpm8

nI nAma rupa mulaku

TS kalyAnarAman
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d5YS1KP9Axc

nAdopAsaka
Posts: 386
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#510 Re: Thyagaraja (the tiruvOtriyUr tripurasundari panCa-vAra kritis)

Post by nAdopAsaka »

the tiruvOtriyUr tripurasundari panCa-vAra kritis

Only the tyAgarAja worships the tiruvOtriyUr tripurasundari with a complete set of 5 vAra kritis !

It will be shown in this post that the 5 kritis of the tyAgarAja to the tiruvOtriyUr tripurasundari (the vadivudai-ammA) follow a highly organized pattern.

Recognizing this pattern SIMULTANEOUSLY gives the basis for EACH of the rAga choices made by the tyAgarAja at this shrine !

Background

The vAggeyakAras of the Hindu nAda-sampradAya are supreme "communicators".

At one interface they are in communion with the deities and the source of nAda. At another interface they try to make contact with the nAda-upAsaka to reveal their essential teaching.

But over the last two hundred years this wondrous child of the communion of vAggeyakAra with deity, has been bludgeoned relentlessly by the cult of the performer and by technicalities and swara-gymnastics of the kutchEri vidwAn/wedding singer.

The beautiful nAda-child has run behind its Mothers leg for shelter.

But today once again the nAda-upAsaka rejoices as that same frightened child, peeping out from behind the deity, bestows its shy glance !

the basis for the panCa-vAra structure of the tyAgarAjas tiruvOtriyUr kSEtra dEvi kritis

It has already been shown in post # 747 of the Mutthuswamy Dikshitar thread that the Dikshitar acknowledges fidelity to the "BEGINNING" symbolized at Adi-pura, with the Arabhya = Arabhi rAga kriti. He also honors the "BEGINNING" sound at Adi-pura with the sAma-gAna rAga kriti.

Exactly in keeping with this logic, the tyAgarAja offers ONE-BY-ONE, a unique kriti for each day of the week starting from sOma-vAra and culminating with the Sukra-vAra.

the Arabhi kriti as the tiruvOtriyUr sOma-vAra pujA.

The tyAgarAja offers Arabhi as the sOma-vAra kriti at Adi-pura

Why ?

1. Because Arabhi (as Arabhya) denotes the beginning status of Adi-pura, as noted also for the Dikshitar.
2. Because the moon = sOma is also known as "abhi-rupa" which aspect is present in the word Ar-abhi.
3. In the kriti "sundari ninnu varnimpa", the tyAgarAja also refers to this moon via the words "kaluvala-rAja" = king of the night-lily and "kunda-radanE", (where "kunda" is a particular appearance of the moon, although applied here as a synonym for jasmine-like teeth).

the bEgada kriti as the tiruvOtriyUr mangala-vAra pujA

This is a particular thrill to explain and comprehend.

It turns out that the mangala/Mars deity has a long and beautiful neck, celebrated as the "kam-bu-gala" in the angAraka Tuesday graha kriti by the Dikshitar.

Additionally, in at least one kriti (Sri mAtah) the Dikshitar refers to the long neck of the dEvi as "bE-gala", while delivering the word & rAga bE-gada.

It seems the tyAgarAja was paying attention to this same feature when offering his own bE-gada "sundari nannindarilO" as the Tuesday pujA !

Of course one should have been alerted to the word "gala" from the word man-gala itself !

So two down , three to go...the dominoes they are a falling as the sweet nAda-child continues to favor its devotee.

The next two vAra kritis are in sAvEri and Suddha sAvEri.

why the sAvEri's ?

To comprehend the choice for the next two kritis one needs to understand the background to the word "sAvEri".

sAvEri derives from sAvitri who is of course saraswati, the consort of brahmA.

Incidentally, the mahArAja says of the pArvati dEvi, that she is born of the same body (tanujA) as sAvEri = saraswati in the terrific sAvEri pada-varna "sAvEri-ha tanujA".

Both budha-vAra and guru-vAra are linked to the deities budha and guru who originate from brahmA, and therefore from saraswati.

Having comprehended these aspects the specific choices now become clear.

the sAvEri kriti as the tiruvOtriyUr budha-vAra pujA

sAvEri = saraswati = SaradA = vAgiSwari is also "budha-lOka vilasita" in the mahArAjas "pAhi-mAm" kalyAni kriti.
This identifies the choice of sAvEri for the budha-vAra or Wednesday pujA !

But the tyAgarAja (just like the nAda-upAsaka) knows that the criminal detractors = notation-mongers and other revisionists are always lurking and skulking in the shadows. (Untold woe unto all of them)

So he reinforces the sAvEri kriti "kanna talli" for budha-vAra with another important embedded pointer !

The budha graha is symbolic of intelligence and intellect, aka buddhi. Notice also that the Dikshitar calls him "pustaka-karam" in the nAta-kuranji graha kriti.

The tyAgarAja goes further by embedding the famous teaching of intellect via the rope/snake story, (discussed in depth by the Adi Sankara) .

In merely 4 words "telisi rajju-pai Uraga buddhi" ! he condenses his demand for that buddhi = intellect that is able to see the difference between a rope (rajju aka "rassi") and a snake (Uraga), which discussion is iconic of the mAndUkya upAniSad.

the Suddha sAvEri kriti as the tiruvOtriyUr guru-vAra pujA

guru or brihaspati is "brahmA-jAta" and therefore , like brahmA's consort saraswati = sAvEri, representative also of learning and wisdom.

brihaspati is also "parAdi-cAtvAri vAk swarupa" , of the form of four-fold speech (para-vAk etc. etc.), as seen also in the "brihaspatE" graha kriti of the Dikshitar.

brihaspati is therefore the deity of speech or vAk, which is controlled by the throat Cakra = viSuddha Cakra !

The Cakra nature of the tripurasundari at tiruvOtriyUr is also noted by the Dikshitar.

So invoking the viSuddha is entirely in alignment wiith the kSEtra.

There is only one rAga , iconic of guru-vAra, that is at once reflective of "vi-Suddha" and also of sAvEri...namely Suddha sAvEri.

Once again the tyAgarAja does not leave any doubt, because he embeds the word "guru-ni vAsara sEva" in the last Caranam of the iconic "dArini telusukonti" kriti, at the end of the well-known line that begins "rajita mani gana" .

the kalyAni kriti as the tiruvOtriyUr Sukra-vAra pujA

Is there a better name for the goddess than kalyAni for the nAda-yOgi who fulfills his quest for her on the fifth and final day of her pujA ?!!

Indeed, the tyAgarAja states the words "Sukra-vAra sEva" in this kriti overtly.

And the darSana is captured as "sundari ni divya rupamu juCi".

kalyAni is "she who bestows all good , all good things, all wishes and all good fortune". The pujA is designed after 5 days to invoke the tripura-sundari as this kalyAni.

And naturally Venus (or Sukra) is the benevolent graha which brings exactly those auspicious blessings = kalyAni.

Summary

The Hindu vAggeyakAras of the nAda-sampradAya give us their kritis, not just for mere musical/swara appreciation but to communicate deeper messages.

One can, of course listen, as most rasikas do, at a superficial level, and bathe in this fountain of joy.

But the amrita from this fountain should not just cleanse the outer surface of the rasika.

The nAda-upAsaka must also absorb the messages.

The music and message of our nAda-yOgis must CHANGE the listener.

This is the nAda-sampradAya pradarSini, the reiteration and illustration of Hindu truth and shruti.

What better evidence can there be that this truth is beauty than these magnificient kritis to the beautiful first Mother = the tiruvOtriyUr tripura-sundari !

the sOma-vAra kriti

sundari ninnu varnimpa - Arabhi

vid. vidyA K
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Rni6Jio-Vx4

the mangala-vAra kriti

sundari nannindarilo - bEgada

NCV ( the spring kOkila)
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=F-aVehAUSVY
s rAjam
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0qqyuLhJnr0

the budha-vAra kriti

kanna talli - sAvEri

TNS
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KmYUVVDp5v0
viSnudEv N
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MmqVW_CU8Sg

the guru-vAra kriti

dArini telusukonti - Suddha sAvEri

GNB
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QszavuZ6Blw
MSS
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C-K1rg64_qA
young vidwAn hari O
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mjzsH7xjtNc

the Sukra-vAra kriti

sundari nI divya rupamU - kalyAni

BMK
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S-0Fuf4Bn_I
Hyd Bros.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Jt-Fr1ZEhXM
bangalore Bros.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rxlRX0fBJCM

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#511 Re: Thyagaraja (The tyAgarAjas telescope - the Srirangam panCa-ratna vision of the shawl-clad , horse-riding viSnu )

Post by nAdopAsaka »

The tyAgarAjas telescope - the Srirangam panCa-ratna vision of the shawl-clad , horse-riding viSnu

Only the tyAgarAja worships the aStAkSara , 8 syllable nArAyana deity with a panCa-ratna set of 5 kritis !

Background
The Hindu vAggeyakAras of the nAda-sampradAya are like Hubble the astronomer.

They have also built, in every one of their kritis , a super-telescope !

But there the similarity ends.

When Hubble first saw the "red-shift" with his outward looking lenses, he refused to believe what it meant.

Unlike Hubble, the vAggeyakAras telescopes, (their wondrous kritis) gaze not just far outward but also penetrate inward.

Also unlike Hubble, these nAda-yOgis completely believed what they saw and heard !

And all nAda-upAsakas are forever enriched by their quest and their vision..

At Srirangam however the vision and the "shift" is not to the red but towards the blue/gold, since the deity is viSnu.

Which brings us to the Srirangam panCa-ratna kritis.

The aStAkSara , 8 syllable nArAyana deity being offered a panCa-ratna set of 5 kritis might seem a bit odd to some.

Perhaps the tyAgarAja was commemorating the iconic panCa-rAtra pujA ??

Or

Is it possible that each rAga carries a signature of the panCa bhuta elements ?

for example
Arabhi for vAyu from the life-giving breath where all consciousness BEGINS =Arambham
( e.g. see hari prAna-maya kOSa-anila of the Dikshitar at SrikAlahasti)
dEvagAndhAri for gagana from celestial or heavenly entities (dEva)
sAranga for jala from sAra (the liquid essence)
kAma-bOji for agni from the "fire of kAma" ( the heat of desire)
and
dESya tOdi for prithvi from dESa = land = bhumi

The Dikshitar does the similar pujA at palani offering each of the five gandha/elements to the dandAyudhapAni ascetic. (post # 720 of the Mutthuswamy Dikshitar thread). And the tyAgarAja describes lord rAma as enjoying each of these 5 elements in his matchless ritigaula "dwaitamu sukhamA".

Verily has the telescope become a kaleidoscope of thoughts, inspired by the colorful deity !

One thing, however, is absolutely clear... the Srirangam set is ALSO the result of a careful and consolidated pujA.

This post will show how the tyAgarAjas 5 Srirangam kritis are inter-connected and how their very rAga choices are inextricably linked , indeed dictated by the kSEtra.

These findings (all new) , once again confirm the pre-meditation and deliberation applied by the tyAgarAja at this shrine , just like that shown for tiruvOtriyUr in post # 510 of this thread.

the tyAgarAjas Srirangam panCa-ratna kritis

The following aspects should first be comprehended.
1. The 5 kritis of this set are all short, less than 4-5 lines each, unlike the colossal 3 stanzas each of the 5 tiruvOtriyUr set.
2. All the kritis either "call the deity" or "call the listener to behold the deity" , with, multiple , repeated use of words of similar intent such as "pilaCitE, vina, jutAmu, rArE, judu etc. etc.
3. The horse-riding deity (which is a particular aspect of Srirangam utsava procession) is specifically noted in multiple kritis, in different ways.

All the rAga choices are linked to particular aspects of the deity/kSEtra. Once again it is the word names of the rAgas that control their selection, NOT the swaras.

Each kriti is now taken up individually to describe these rAga choices.

O rangaSayi - the basis for rAga kAmbOji
This is arguably a dominant kriti in kutchEris etc. of the last 100 years.

It was also sung by MSS at the UN in 1966 (but unfortunately had little effect on any world peace initiatives ).

I had noted this kriti in post # 492.

viSnu as Sri-ranga, who is also kAma-janaka is "accused', gently, by the tyAgarAja in this kriti of enjoying (= bhOja) rather too much, his time with the dEvi, (Sri-lOludai) and neglecting his devotees.

The rAga choice of kam(a)bhOja is a direct consequence of this idea.

vina rAdanA manavi - the basis for rAga dEvagAndhAri
The word "gandharva" refers to a celestial singer or group of such singers.

Therefore the choice of this rAga as the song of celestial singers follows from this meaning of the word gandharva
Indeed "gandharva-gAna" is well known in viSnu worship.

It will also be observed that the tyAgarAja repeats the "pilaCitE" word 3 times in this kriti.

Notably "gandharva" refers also to a horse, which is an indelible impression of Srirangam festival.

And the tyAgarAja refers to this horse as "tEji-ni-ekki" where "tEji" is the "borrowed" Hindi/Urdu word for "swift" or tEz, referring to the vAhana of the procession idol.

karuNa jUda-vayya mAyayya kAvETi rangayya - the basis for rAga sAranga
This choice is fairly obvious.

It is IMPOSSIBLE for a kriti , by any true nAda-yOgi, not to be associated with the word "sA-ranga" when offered to the ranga-nAtha at Srirangam. Note that the Dikshitar has the brindAvana sAranga (rangapura vihAra) in this kSEtra.

sA-ranga also means "with ranga" and the tyAgarAja cements this thought with repeated use of the word "karam-idi", the hand-holding he seeks of the lord.

Of particular interest is how the phrase juda-vayya mAy-ayya is drawn out in the kriti, almost like a horse neighing ! The vidUSi Sowmyas example linked below illustrates this amply.

jutAmu rArE - the basis for rAga Arabhi
The vAyu bhuta element mentioned earlier is one aspect of the "Beginning" symbolized by the word Arabhi = Arabhya = Arambham.

Additionally, the word "abhi" indicates the moon which is known as "abhi-rupah"

The rAga name Ar-abhi therefore also satisfies the connection between the moon and the viSnu deity.

It is useful to remember that viSnu is invoked with the words "SuklAm baradaram viSnum SaSi-varnam" and his major avatAras are known as "CandrAnana" or "raghukula jalanidhi sOma".

In fact in the kriti, the tyAgarAja also says that the Srirangam viSnu is measured against the moon as "mukha nirjita candru-daTa'.

This kriti carries an interesting reference to the garment , i.e. the shawl covering the idol.

The tyAgarAja once again uses a "borrowed" Hindi/Urdu word "SAlu" in the phrase.
"sItApati pUjyu-daTa SrngAra SEkharu-daTa, sariganCu SAlu-vaTa"

Indeed the word for this garment originated in the Urdu language as "SAl" and was then translated into "Shawl" in the English language.

rAju vEdalE jUtAmu rArE - the basis for rAga dESya tODi
The kriti describes the deity as "kastUri ranga tEji-nekki" referring to the horse-vAhana of the Srirangam procession.

We have also seen in the dEvagAndhAri kriti, that the word tEji is a synonym for the horse , with a core meaning of "swift" = tEz from the Urdu.

Notably the horse is also known in Sanskrit as GOti-ka = GOdi-ka, often shortened to GOdi in Hindi.

There is no doubt the tyAgarAja is referring to this horse G-Odi with the word t-Odi.

The fact that the rAga is "dESya-tODi" is further confirmation since the word "GOdi" is itself a dESya usage, since it primarily found in Hindi/Urdu.

The various unique markers given in each kriti text (e.g. moon in Arabhi, karamidi in the sAranga, Sri-lOlu in the kAmbOji etc. ) also preclude the possibility that the rAgas are interchangeable within the set.

Summary
Hubble and the periodic table alchemists just like the "shylocks of swaras" and the "merchants of murchanas" have missed the meaning of existence and consciousness, that the nAda-yOgis recognize.

It is not the individual atoms and molecules , (the swaras) of the universe , that are paramount.

Through their telescopes, their wondrous kritis, the Hindu vAggeyakAras teach that what is paramount is the reason all these swaras/atoms/molecules are held together.

At Srirangam = bhulOka vaikuntha (or anywhere else), there is no point singing any of these kritis without realizing the basic intent of this pujA.

The findings being revealed in all these posts HAVE to be true, because no one (the nAda-upAsaka included) has the imagination to make them up.


O rangaSAyi - kambOji
ramana B - excellent resonant veena
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6Dqrd4AisAQ

MSS at Srirangam 1987
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pVbV2JnQe9s

vina rAdA nA manavi - dEvagAndhAri
rAmnAd K
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-CP7qEfRivo
OST
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VN7Snc4XGNI

karunA juduvayyA - sAranga
AlatUr bros.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ExRvtVUS8gQ
vid. sOwmya
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ul47PT5-YxE

jutAmu rArE - Arabhi
rAji G
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QGa2XX6mFsg
veena sujana
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_8ml4WHMCvE

rAju veDale jUtAmu rArE - dESya tODi
KVN
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c9TyIJ5VXBY
MLV
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3clUB4KS1QQ

nAdopAsaka
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#512 Re: Thyagaraja (The Dikshitars Srirangam panCa-ratna and its panCa bhuta pujA)

Post by nAdopAsaka »

please see the Mutthuswamy Dikshitar thread for the Dikshitars Srirangam panCa-ratna and its panCa bhuta pujA


viewtopic.php?p=376247#p376247
Last edited by nAdopAsaka on 14 May 2022, 14:29, edited 1 time in total.

RSR
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#513 Re: Thyagaraja (Krithis)

Post by RSR »

Sir,
I submit that the post 512 is made in MD kruthis thread and a link given in Thyagaraja thread.

nAdopAsaka
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#514 Re: Thyagaraja (supOSini and the nurturing = su-pO-Sana of the rAma nAma)

Post by nAdopAsaka »

supOSini and the nurturing = su-pO-Sana of the rAma nAma

It is Only the tyAgarAja who chooses the rAga supOSini for his divya nAma sankirtana "raminCuvArevarurA"

And why not ?!

The rAga word "su-pOSana" or "pOSana" itself implies "nourishing fulfillment" or "nurturing"... perfectly aligned with the meaning and intent of the sacred rAma nAma sankirtana.

Indeed the influence of the rAga word on this short kriti does not end there !

Inspired by the fact that the word "pO-San-a" carries also the word San = six, the tyAgarAja goes on to describe the lord himself as FILLED (ganA) with the San = SIX-FOLD attributes starting from Sama, dama etc...= as he says Sama-Adi Sad-guNa gaNA, where Sad = 6 = San.

(naturally San = six as in San-mukha)

And once again it is seen that the nAda-yOgi, the tone-poet, the sAdhu, the sentinel and the symbol of Hindu values, the Hindu vAggeyakAra is NOT selecting the rAga from some soul-less (Excel or Word etc) table of mEla/janya/swara classes....rather the selection is made by "visualizing" the rAga's word/meaning, which then impacts the entire lyric and is offered as an integral part of the pujA.

The rAga "supOSini" has NOT attracted any other compositions (as far as I can tell) and also rather limited interest from modern "swara-virtuosos"/kutcheri vidwAns. I am quite doubtful that it has ever been requested from a vidwAn at a kutchEri.

In fact the only-known-kriti in supOSini "ramin-CuvArevarurA" itself delivers the rAga as a folksy tune/childish ditty.

A similar approach is employed by the tyAgarAja for example in the sing-song-like mOhana "bhavanuta nA hrdayamuna ramim-pumu" where he beckons the "bhava tAraka rAma".

But this "seeming simplification" itself conceals the powerful message that the tyagarAja is sending !

That the divya nAma sankirtana and its value to anyone, does not and should not need too much scholarship or planning or even AlApana.

Like Einstein, the tyAgarAja keeps things "only as simple as needed, never simpler".

raminCuvArevarurA - supOSini

flute p. parAsuram
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=g7MsAmILvsI

violin bharath h
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rGD9vFNSH28

vocal rAjkumAr B
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5RGdjMWN6PA

bhavanuta nA hrdayamuna - mOhana

MSG
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WgPldEvhRYs

rajeshnat
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#515 Re: Thyagaraja (Krithis)

Post by rajeshnat »

raminCuvArevarurA - supOSini is the second krithi of T that was taught by my paatu vaadiyar preceded by sarasara samarE in kuntalavarali also by T . Wondered why no one has ever sung this raminCUvArevarurA

For the first time i am hearing a vocalist singing (Rajkumar bharathi). A decade or so back when i googled i found one whistle artist performing SupOshini ragam of this eka krithi raminCUvArevarurA.

Sorry for the digress.

rajeshnat
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#516 Re: Thyagaraja (Krithis)

Post by rajeshnat »

For bhavanuta you have put only MSG violin let me add manakkal rangarajan singing bhavanuta - mohanam - T . No one should ever miss manakkal singing mohanam bhavanuta

https://youtu.be/wmtVnqt21KM?t=715

nAdopAsaka
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#517 Re: Thyagaraja ("rAga-panjaram" - the kritis of the tyAgarAjas "musical cage" )

Post by nAdopAsaka »

"rAga-panjaram" - the kritis of the tyAgarAjas "musical cage"

Only for the tyAgarAja is the deity the very rib-cage that protects his musical heart.

Why ?

Because the tyAgarAja is the only vAggeyakAra to employ the obscure rAga named "rAga-panjaram" in his pujA, and of course "panjaram" means cage.

This rarely-heard and barely- examined rAga, "rAga-panjaram" is the backdrop of not one, but two tyAgarAja kritis.

sArvabhauma sAkEta rAma

In "sArvabhauma sAkEta rAma", the tyAgarAja says that this rAma is the sArvabhauma = universal protector and is worshipped by both "pArvati ramana" = the Siva and by "ramA pati" = the viSnu and also called as the "dinabandhu parAt-para".

And therefore he is qualified to be the tyAgarAjas overlord as well.

Is there a better choice for this kriti than "rAga-panjaram" which symbolizes this all-encircling rib-cage that guards the heart and the soul, (the rAga) of the tyAgarAja ?!

varadA navanitASa

In "varadA navanitASa", the tyAgarAja says that the butter-loving viSnu (of kAnCipuram) is worshipped (nuta) by the "pura dahana" = the Siva and is also the protector of ageless devatAs as the "ajara-avana para".

Again , just like in the sArvabhauma kriti , this viSnu is qualified to be the tyAgarAjas overlord as well, the protecting rib-cage where nestles the heart/rAga of the tyAgarAja.

And once again there is no question the rAga-panjaram is the eminently suitable choice.

The textbooks suggest that the kriti "varadA navanitASa" of the tyAgarAja has connections to kAnCi, likely due to "varada" usage seen also in the "varadarAja" swarabhUSani kriti.

The Dikshitars "panjara" at kAnCi

Indeed at kAnCipuram there is additional background for the tyAgarAjas musical cage idea !

To fully comprehend this connection, one needs to first appreciate that at kAnCi, the Dikshitar refers to the mother goddess as the kanCadalAyadAkSi kAmAkSi who is "Siva panjara Suki"....like the parrot in Sivas cage., in the brilliant kamalAmanOhari kriti.

It is the only reference to the "panjara" word in the entire Dikshitar collection.

This kAnCi kAmAKSi goddess is also symbolic of the lakSmi form , particularly enunciated in the Dikshitar bilahari as "kAmAkSi varalakSmi kamalAkSi jayalakSmi"

Naturally the lakSmi form is considered as resident in the heart of hari, fully within his rib-cage.

So at kAnCi, the "Siva panjara Suki" and the "hari vakSa sthala lakSmi" become the goal of the tyAgarAja, like them, seeking protection for his musical soul in the lords cage , his own "rAga-panjara".

varadA navanitASa

vid. sugunA v
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I2Lgzm15ohg

shobhana v
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Dfd096EI-Nw

sArvabhaumA sAkEta rAma

s rAjam
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KDj0fA9tXKk

sikkil G.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uV6UdM9Nq2k

arasi
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#518 Re: Thyagaraja (Krithis)

Post by arasi »

NAdOpAsaka,
Thank you for caging us in the beauty of this rAga. Suguna VAradachari's varadA navanItASa captured me! Such a lovely song sung so well by her, with svarAs too.

kamalamanOhari song kanja dalAyadAkshi... until now, I had no idea it included the Lakshmi form too.
A question: are both kanja and kancha acceptable in singing it? kanja is lotus?

nAdopAsaka
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#519 Re: Thyagaraja (Krithis)

Post by nAdopAsaka »

thank you for the interest and also your appreciation of vid. sugunA V.

In my opinion, our music survives with the tireless devotion and humility of such individuals.

The kamalAmanOhari kriti (where the "Siva panjara" appears ) by itself does not invoke the lakSmi.

As I noted in post # 517, it is the "kAmAkSi varalakSmi" bilahari which identifies the lakSmi aspect and also preserves the very "panjara" noticed by the tyAgarAjas inner eye.

Indeed, the Dikshitar, in his infinite wisdom, uses the rAga bila-hari (the cave (=cage = bila) of hari) to express the viSnu-lakSmi legend linked inextricably to the kAmAkSi of kAnCi.

Here too the same cage motif is "trapped".

I believe it should be phonetically kan-ja i.e. lotus

nAdopAsaka
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#520 Re: Thyagaraja (the tyAgarAjas 2 other kritis at kAnCipuram)

Post by nAdopAsaka »

the tyAgarAjas 2 other kritis at kAnCipuram

post # 517 "opened" the panjara/cage door at hastagiri-kAmakOti.

It becomes imperative for the nAda-upAsaka to step through.

This post is about the other two kritis (i.e. besides the rAga-panjaram) of the tyAgarAja at kAnCipuram.

Given that the rAga-panjaram choice is thoroughly explained by the "cage" motif, it is relevant to ask whether the other two kritis by the tyAgarAja at kAnCi, also have similar firm explanation/basis.

Gloriously, the vAggeyakAra once again sends his message to a grateful nAda-upAsaka, through the sea of svaras and the cacophony of kutcheris.

varadarAja ninnu kOri in the rAga svarabhUSani

The varadarAja of kAnCipuram is worshipped by the tyAgarAja as the "shining moon" in the heaven of ageless stars "nir-jar-ulanu tAra-kamulalO Candru-dai merayaduvaTa".

"svara' is the synonym for this heavenly firmament (e.g. svara-gangA is the classical name for the milky-way galaxy, svara-lOka etc. etc.) and bhUSana is, of course, shining adornment.

There is no question the rAga choice as svara-bhUSanI is made for this viSnu due to this "svara-bhUSana" moon visualized by the tyAgarAja at hastagiri/kAnCi.

vinAyakuni valEnu brOva in the rAga madhyamAvati

In this terrific madhyamAvati, the tyAgarAja wants the same protection as the kAnCi kAmAkSi gives her own son the ganapati. Picking the elephant headed icon of the goddess (her son) is a fine contrast to the gajEndra mOkSa legend of the viSnu as well as the elephant shape of the hasta/hasti hill at kAnCi.

But the kAmAkSi goddess here is unique for another important reason.

She gives the power of speech to the dumb.

As the tyAgarAja says in the kriti, she is "girAlu mUku-niki rA jEsi".

No less an authority than the Dikshitar says of the kAnCi kAmAkSi in "EkAmrESa nAyakim" , the CAmara kriti , that she is "mUka mukhya vAk pradAyini".

The word "madhyama/madhyamA" is itself one of the four-fold forms of speech. (described for e.g. as "parAdi Cat-vAri vAg-Atmakam" where the four are parA, pashyanti, madhyama and vaikhari).

And "vata" = "vada" of course is speech.

Once again, there is complete certainty that this rAga choice madhyamAvati
(derived from madhyamA + vata) for "vinAyakuni valEnu", is being made by the tyAgarAja precisely to worship the speech granting goddess at kAnCI.

It only remains to complete the pujA by invoking the varadarAja with svarabhUSAni and the kAmAkSi with madhyamAvati.

varadarAja ninnu kOri - svarabhUSani

TVS
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SWsMnJcBkZE

vinAyakuni valEnu - madhyamAvati

MSS (with a nice introductory viruttam)
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oFy6l38jXj0

MDR
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=miBT1LrysNs

kadri G
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XeqrJ5AmDvk

nAdopAsaka
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#521 Re: Thyagaraja (Faith versus Fate, the tyAgarAjas dipaka)

Post by nAdopAsaka »

Faith versus Fate, the tyAgarAjas dipaka

Only the tyAgarAja offers the dipakam of faith as the only antidote against fate.

For the nAda-upAsaka, there is absolutely no doubt that the tyAgarAja picks the rAga “dipaka” DELIBERATELY for the kriti “kala-la nErCinA”.

Why ?

Because the word “kala” implies all three of the following

[1] the arts (as in the 64 arts, aravainAlugu kala)

[2] fate/destiny (as in kali-giyuntE)

AND

[3] a ray of light, such as from a lamp used in an arCanA

The gist of “kalala nErCinA” is that even a livelihood based on the 64 arts is useless and futile for saving those whose ill-fate is already preset, unless they are redeemed by faith, symbolized by “dipaka arCanA”.

Lamps for “dipaka arCanA” also use sesame oil (tila) , so the reference made to the singari legend (the nuvvu hill) later in the kriti is also perfectly aligned with the starting idea of the kriti.

But wait..there is more…

dipaka is also a synonym for the kAma-deva (dip-aka also implies inflaming = exciting).

Noticeably the dipaka rAga is a janya of the kAma-vardhani mEla.

When thinking of kAma-vardhani (mEla 51) janyas, naturally the Dikshitar is also in the vicinity !

Why ?

Because his own kAma-vardhani janya (i.e. kumudakriya) masterpiece ardhanAriSwaram is also about lighting a lamp !

THE MIDNIGHT pujA ardhayAma alankAra is described in the kriti.

Post # 483 of the Mutthuswamy Dikshitar thread discussed the "ardha-nAriSwaram" kriti and the Dikshitar’s “rite of the nite”.

In 200 years neither rAga (dipaka or kumudakriya) has seen (or needed ) any other insight.

kalala nErCinA - rAga dipaka

GNB
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5Jc81XjOHsQ

flute prapanCam S
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=l9nTaXkZLFM

BMK
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Y6d29tf5YGs

nAdopAsaka
Posts: 386
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#522 Re: Thyagaraja (Cakra-vAka - the bird and the bird-call)

Post by nAdopAsaka »

Cakra-vAka - the bird and the bird-call

Only the tyAgarAja recognizes the CakravAka for the bird-sound that it is.

Why ?

Because in EtulA brOtuvO, it is the “karna kathOra” (= harsh to the ears) story of his life.

As the V. rAghavan “Spiritual Heritage” classic textbook translates this line of the kriti, “a despicable record of the tyAgarAjas sins, detestable to the ear”.

Of course the Cakra-vAka is the goose whose squawking- honking sound can be considered rather unpleasant.

Further, the other widely heard kriti “sugunamu-lE Ceppu konti” , can also be thought of as the unworthy quality (= “without su-guna” = su-guna-lE) of the tyAgarAjas own voice = his “Ceppu”, which echoes the harsh quality of the Cakra-vAka sound.

v. rAghavan’s book translates this idea differently.. giving the meaning of “sugunamul-ay Ceppu konti” as that song of the tyAgarAja who is capable of only singing the lords good name, (ignoring all other pious acts like bathing and religious studies).

But in this regard too, the bird-call’s stamp on the tyAgarAja imagination is undeniable !

Why ?

Because now it is the tyAgarAja calling the lord like the Cakra-vAka bird calls its soulmate in the "wilderness".

And then the nAda-upAsaka realizes that it is the sound of sincere anxiety which has turned the desperation of each call into the magic of music for the intended audience, the bird and the lord.

EtulA brotuvO

sangita swAminAthan
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VBcn-lJcmMg

toronto bros.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_KVotQGL_Fw

veena e Sankar SaStri
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6YcUXzQLkS0


sugunamulE Ceppukonti

MSS
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dTAdckCQj3I

veena jayanti
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7BntRmWsGyI

violin T harihara Subr
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DDxbT_zeXXo

nAdopAsaka
Posts: 386
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#523 Re: Thyagaraja (Krithis) The “jingle” of the jingalA - a Fathers-day song

Post by nAdopAsaka »

The “jingle” of the jingalA - a Fathers-day song..

Only the tyAgarAja thinks of an orphan = anAtha = abandonment with his kriti in the sprightly rAga jingalA !

jinga-lA , (the word) , derives from the word “Sinja” which means tinkle or jingle.

Why is the tyAgarAja associating “abandonment” with this otherwise pleasant tinkling sound ?!

Because a bell is rung when babies are abandoned, (perhaps as one final gesture of caring)

Indeed the very deity whose name itself signifies parenthood (the ay-appA) was abandoned as a baby but with a bell tied around his neck (the so-called mani-kantha).

In “anAthudanu gAnu”, the tyAgarAja proclaims he is no orphan, instead he cheekily suspects the lord of being one !

The racy, peppy nature of the kriti shows that the tyAgarAja is unconcerned with any estrangement from his own birth family (those corrupt shawl-gatherers )….he only cares that he is not destitute in the lords eyes.

Most readers of these threads are either without parents and/or grandparents , or soon-to-be without parents and/or grand-parents.

On this Fathers day, at least for the nAda-upAsaka, the tyAgarAjas message of the supreme parent, delivered as this tinkling jingalA, is reassuring,

anAthudanu gAnu – rAga jingalA

amruta V
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1h0HEFgV1e0

violin a kanyAkumAri
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C0QD3Z_cxHo

mandolin srinivas
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TFA8nQ-NOp8

arasi
Posts: 16620
Joined: 22 Jun 2006, 09:30
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#524 Re: Thyagaraja (Krithis)

Post by arasi »

Thank you, Nadopasaka. Amrutha's mellifluous voice with its joy brings out the beauty of Tyagaraja's abandon in this song. Nothing of abandonment here! How he rejoices that with Sri Rama's grace, he would never be an orphan. The two exceptional instrumentalists add to the festive mood.

Yes, Happy Fathers Day to all! Yes, thanks to all father figures and the rest. Interestingly, a nephew sent wishes to me this morning saying that we mothers are nurturers too and needed to be wished, while children in our family are greeted by their kids on Fathers day. Yes, no one needs to feel abandoned on special days like these...:)

nAdopAsaka
Posts: 386
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#525 Re: Thyagaraja (Krithis) The dESya rAga “hamir kalyAni” and the dESya word “hamir”

Post by nAdopAsaka »

The dESya rAga “hamir kalyAni” and the dESya word “hamir”

Only for the tyAgarAja does the dESya rAga word “hamir” symbolize not just a prince, but a prince’s haughty arrogance and aloofness !

Why ?

Because in BOTH “mAnamu lEdA” and “ni dAsa nu dAsu dani”, the essential theme is the tyAgarAja venting his bitter frustration at being ignored by the uncaring lord, who is full of this “princely arrogance”.

And hamir = amir = amira is of course the arabic word for prince.

Nothing could be more “dESya” (= foreign) than this word !

Background – the Dikshitars hamir kalyAnis

The ingenuity of the vAggeyakAras is vividly on display when they handle the so-called dESya rAgas, (i.e. those rAgas which are thought to “originate” outside the typical “milieu” of the kAvEri delta).

Post # 549 of the Mutthuswamy Dikshitar thread reveals the intense connection between the choice of this dESya rAga for the divya-dESa of the parimala ranganAtha kSEtra at the moon-lit tiru-induluri.

The reference “nara varada dAmOdaram” , is to the role of the krSnA avatAr of the viSnu here as giving boons etc. (= kalyAna) to the hamira = the prince of the mahAbhArata = arjunA. Indeed sometimes the word “nara” itself is equated to arjunA from parsing of the word “nArAyana”..

Apart from the rather obvious dESya rAga and divya-dESa connection, another dESya link to the word “hamira” lies in the “mira” legend , she being the prime devotee of the giridhara gOpAla = krSnA, to which idea the Dikshitar would have been inevitably exposed while at varanAsi..

Similarly in the Dikshitars “purahara nandana”, the skanda (who is ALSO an iconic kumAra ! = prince = hamira) is exalted as victorious (aham-vIra) over enemies (“ripukula bhanjana”) simultaneously as he is benevolent (kalyAna) as the “karunAmrta rasa sAgara”.

Here the rAga mudra is being delivered by the “meaning of the lyric”.

The reference to the crescent-moon on the skanda in this kriti (“tarunAmrta kara SEkhara”) is also related to the night-time asAvEri kriti kumArasWaminam in the vaithiSwaram/mAyavaram region quite close to tiru-induluri. Notice too that hamir kalyAn is a rAtri prahara rAga.

So much for influence of the dESya word on the Dikshitars choices for his hamir kalyAni kritis.

This is the tyAgarAja thread, so we must turn to his 2 offerings.

Upon which the nAda-upAsaka reaches the following inescapable conclusion !

Both kritis can be seen as summarising the arrogant dismissive tone adopted by such dESya princes/kings , the hamir !, in their dealings with commoners.

Indeed the hostility of the tyAgarAja’s accusatory tone is at an all-time high in the language of both these kritis.

“mAnamu lEdA” (as translated by v. rAghavan/c. rAmanujaCAri in the Spiritual Heritage textbook) taunts the lord as “without self-respect”, “with no care for his devotees” and “who is unprecedented in his lack of attachment” = gAna-mu-rA nivalE nir-mOhini.

Similarly in the almost palindromic “ni-dA-sa-nu-dA-su-da-ni” , the textbook translates this as the tyAgarAja bemoaning the uselessness of being the servant of the servants the lord who is also devoid of any sweet words “ruCira vAka poyyE”.

Harsh words indeed !

But the quarrel between the nAda-yOgi and the lord is short-lived.

Because upon hearing the kritis , the nAda-upAsaka realizes that each has forgiven the other !

ni dAsanu-dAsudani hamir kalyAni

vid r. vEdavalli
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Y4oXi0pPuqE

tiger V
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GyZJ8cuaQ7c

mAnamu lEdA hamir kalyAni

rAmnAd K
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=z7BCGvYlr-g

MSG (who lets his gAyaki style do the talking)
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LVLi-PF4160

priya sisters
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=isaU7TPsfKk

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